Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Sample Chapter - A Short History of Traditional Crafts - Gunsmiths

Sample Chapter
 A Short History of Traditional Crafts
Gunsmiths
The gunsmith performs a number of different tasks that involve many different skills, including woodworking, machinist, engineering and finishing. The first gunsmiths arose in Europe after the introduction of firearms in the Fourteenth Century. The Chinese, who had first invented gunpowder in the Ninth Century AD, were naturally the first ones to invent the firearm.
Gunpowder History
Invented by the Chinese in the Ninth Century, gunpowder at first was not explosive, but it was flammable. One of the first recorded uses as a weapon is a drawing of a flamethrower. The Chinese refined the mix, and soon they made rockets and fireworks. They used fireworks at first to scare away evil spirits. The technology spread to the Mongols, to India and then the Arabs. The technology reached Europe by the Thirteenth Century. Historians are not sure if the Mongol invaders brought the technology or if the knowledge came in through the Silk Road, but by the 1300's the Europeans had gunpowder. 
Gunpowder 
Classed as a "low explosive" substance, gunpowder produces a large amount of pressure and gas after a rapid burn. This explosion of gas and pressure is ideal for propelling a projectile down the barrel of a firearm or cannon, as it is not intense enough to destroy the device. Gunpowder is composed of three ingredients, potassium nitrate, carbon and sulfur. Sulfur comprises the smallest component at about ten percent. The colonies imported it from Sicily, which has huge deposits. Carbon, the next biggest component at about fifteen percent, they could manufacture from charcoal, an abundant resource made by burning wood. Potassium nitrate is the most important at seventy-five percent and is the most difficult to obtain.
Potassium Nitrate
Potassium nitrate, or salt peter, accumulates in caves as the composted remains of bat manure, or guano. The early colonists knew of no natural sources of salt peter in the New World. Sources were found later on, but the need for this critical material during the Revolutionary War forced the colonists to find foreign sources. There is another way to produce salt peter, but it is a long process. Any organic matter that contains nitrogen is a potential source for potassium nitrate. Manure, blood from slaughterhouses, and plant material of all kinds they would gather and put in a huge pile. They would water this pile from time to time with animal and human urine. This huge pile of organic matter would decompose, leaving compost behind. They would then leach the salt peter out of this compost with water. They could then re-crystallize the salt peter by evaporating the resulting liquid in the sun. This process typically took a year to produce the salt peter needed for gunpowder.
Brief History of the Firearm
The Chinese developed the fire lance sometime in the 10th Century. This was simply a tube they filled with gunpowder. They lit the gunpowder which ignited and shot a fiery bolt of sparks at an adversary. Sometimes they would put shrapnel of some kind in the tube to inflict greater damage. By the 12th Century the Chinese had evolved their craft to create the first hand cannons which shot cannonballs. The firearm was probably carried to the Middle East by Mongol invaders in the 14th Century. One of the earliest forms of firearms was a gun called an arquebus. This was a defensive weapon whose name derives from the German word Hakenbüchse, or "hook gun." The gun was mounted on hook like projection that steadied the weapon when the shooter fired the gun. Historians think that the arquebus first appeared in the Ottoman Empire sometime around 1465 and in Europe sometime around 1475. These early guns had to be fired by holding a lit match to a fire pan filled with gunpowder. This operation required a great deal of preparation at a time when the soldier was probably under attack. The development of the matchlock, possibly by the Japanese probably developed the matchlock and introduced it to the Portuguese sometime around 1543. The smooth bore muzzle loading musket appeared sometime around 1465, first as a heavier arquebus designed to penetrate armor. This led to the downfall of armor as protection and the musket evolved into a lighter firearm. The introduction of the matchlock made the musket more mobile.
Gunsmiths
The increasing complexity of firearms led to the appearance of gunsmiths that could make and repair the guns. The first gunsmiths were Italian craftsmen that assembled gun barrels. The early gunsmiths during the Middle Ages needed to join a guild in order to practice. Since there were no gunsmith guilds, these artisans joined blacksmithing guilds. As the various national governments soon began to employ gunsmiths their numbers and importance grew, leading to the appearance of specialized gunsmith guilds in the 14th Century. Britain lagged behind the other nations in gunsmiths leading King Henry VIII to invite gunsmiths in other European countries to work in London sometime before 1545. Because of the restrictive guilds in Continental Europe, many gunsmiths happily moved to England to practice their craft. Many gunsmiths migrated to America and began practicing their much needed craft among the first pioneers in the wilderness. The American gunsmiths developed the distinctive Kentucky, or Pennsylvania, long rifle which was much prized by pioneers like Daniel Boone for its accuracy. Gunsmiths provided a valuable service for the newly independent nation during the Revolutionary War.  Eli Whitney's introduction of standardized gun parts in 1798 made mass produced firearms more affordable and placed less reliance upon the hand crafted guns of the gunsmith. However, many gun enthusiasts still prefer the high quality weapon produced by a skilled gunsmith.

A Short History of Traditional Crafts

A Short History of Traditional Crafts
Description:
Discover the story behind many of the traditional handicrafts like black smithing, weaving, quilting, sewing, basket making and pottery. The book covers the history of those crafts as well as metal smiths, brewers and woodworkers. 

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Basket-Making
Candle Making
Ceramics
Embroidery
Glass Arts
Gunsmiths
Quilt Making
Spinning and Weaving History
Invention of Pottery 
Leather Manufacture History
Soap Making History
Metal Working History
Coppersmith History
Goldsmith History
Silversmith History
Tinsmith History
Blacksmiths
Jewelry Making History
Wood Crafting History
Saddle Making History
History of Beads
Glass Blowing History
Leather Crafts
Stone Carving History
Floral Design History
Rug-Making History
Rope Making History
History of Beer and Brewing
History of Wine Making
Toy Making History
Doll Making History
Doll House Making History
Tapestry Art History
Knitting History
Sewing History
Crocheting History
Paper Making
Acknowledgements 
About the Author
Mossy Feet Books Catalogue
Sample Chapter
Short History of Roads and Highways
Bicyclists Press for Better Roads

© 2019 Paul Wonning
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Friday, December 20, 2019

Hoosier History Stories - Box Set

Hoosier History Stories
Hoosier History Stories
Hoosier History Stories
Each of the two volumes of the 366 Days in Indiana History Series includes three hundred and sixty-five days of Indiana history. Hoosier history buffs will enjoy  the 732 stories in these two volumes of Indiana history stories, some of which are little known, while others are important benchmarks in Indiana history.
Box Set Price for Both Books - $35.00
A Year of Indiana History - Book 1
A Year of Indiana History - Book 2
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Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Sample Chapter - Short History of Indiana's Historic Markers - Claude R. Wickard

Sample Chapter
Short History of Indiana's Historic Markers 
Claude R. Wickard
Location: 
Carroll White REMC, 241 N. Heartland Dr., Delphi (Carroll County, IN) 46923. [South of the Hoosier Heartland (Highway 25) about one mile in the Hoosier Heartland Industrial Park.]
Installed:
2018 Indiana Historical Bureau, Carroll County Historical Society, Carroll White REMC, and Friends and Family of Claude R. Wickard.
ID#: 08.2018.1
Text
Side One
 Claude R. Wickard
1893-1967
 Agricultural leader Claude Wickard was born on a farm near here, which he maintained throughout his career. He graduated from Purdue University, became a local Farm Bureau leader, and in 1932 was elected to the Indiana Senate. During the 1930s, Wickard advanced through the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, a New Deal agency aimed at creating parity for farmers.
 Side Two
 By 1937, Wickard became a leader within the U.S. Department of Agriculture. After President Franklin Roosevelt appointed him Secretary of Agriculture in 1940, Wickard ensured the agricultural production necessary for Allied victory in WWII. In 1945, he became chief of the Rural Electrification Administration, which increased farmers’ production and standard of living.

Short History by the Author
Claude R. Wickard (February 28, 1893 – April 29, 1967)
The son of Andrew Jackson and Iva Lenora Kirkpatrick Wickard, Claude was native to Campden, Indiana. He enrolled in Purdue University in 1910, however he had to delay his studies when his father became ill in 1911. He completed the planting and returned to Purdue after harvesting the corn. After graduating in 1915 he returned to the family farm. He became associated with the Democratic Party and the New Deal policies of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Rising to prominence in the party, coupled with his success as a farmer, he gained election to the Indiana Senate in 1932. His progressive farming methods led to his appointment as Undersecretary of Agriculture under Secretary of Agriculture Henry A. Wallace. Wallace resigned to run for Vice President in 1940. Wickard became the Secretary of Agriculture after Wallace's resignation. During World War II he headed the War Food Administration and used the position to help farmers aid the war effort with increased food production. In 1945 Wickard gained appointment as the head of the Rural Electrification Administration, a position he held until 1953. He resigned that year to run for the United States Senate. Republican Homer E. Capehart defeated him in the election. Wickard died in an automobile accident on April 29, 1967. He is interred at Maple Lawn Cemetery in Flora, Indiana.


Monday, December 2, 2019

Sample Chapter -Benjamin Parke

Sample Chapter
Benjamin Parke
Indiana's Counties
Parke County in Indiana derives its name from Benjamin Parke.
Benjamin Parke (September 2, 1777 - July 12, 1835) 
A native of New Jersey, Parke's education was scanty as a child. At twenty years old, he moved to Lexington, Kentucky where he studied law with local attorney James Brown. Two years later, in 1799, he moved to Vincennes, Indiana. A supporter of Indiana Territorial Governor William Henry Harrison, he received an appointment as Attorney General of the Indiana Territory. His term, from 1804 through 1808, coincided with his service as Territorial Delegate to Congress from 1805 to 1808. Parke commanded an Indiana Light Dragoons at the 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe. Harrison included him on his staff during the War of 1812. During his service, he rose to the rank of colonel. After the war, he attended the state constitutional convention in 1816 as a representative of Knox County. After statehood, Parke represented the United States at the Treaty of St. Mary's in 1818. He also served as the first president of the Indiana Historical Society when it formed on December 11, 1830. President James Monroe appointed him to the United States District Court for the District of Indiana. He held that position until his death in 1835.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Choosing the Garden Site

choosing, garden, site, location
Choosing the Garden Site
Sample Chapter 
Gardener's Guide to the Raised Garden Bed
Choosing the Garden Site
Most vegetables require a minimum of six to eight hours of direct sunshine, good airflow and good drainage. Choose a site that will provide those conditions when planning your garden. Good airflow is also important to help prevent fungal diseases. Ideally, it should also be near a water source to make irrigation easier. The garden tool storage shed should also be nearby, if possible. Placing the garden near the home, if it can be done without the home shading the garden, is also desirable. This is especially true if it can be near the kitchen. Planting near black walnut trees is generally not recommended, as the tree produces a substance called juglone, which is toxic to most of the plants you want to grow. Every part, roots, leaves and nuts, contain this substance, so make sure you do not use walnut leaves as a mulch in the garden. 

Gardener's Guide to the Raised Bed Garden

Gardener's Guide to the Raised Garden Bed
The Gardener's Guide to the Raised Garden Bed provides a wealth of information about growing vegetables in raised beds. The book includes chapters about building materials, siting, plant nutrients, soil amendments, irrigation, soils, composting and much more. Gardeners will find a monthly journal of garden activities to guide them along. Gardeners using row style gardens will find the information useful, as well
Sample Chapter 2
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You may also be interested in:
Gardeners Guide to Growing Vegetables Other Books in the Series
Gardeners Guide to Compost
Gardener's Guide Garden Tools
Gardener's Guide to Seed Catalogs
Gardeners' Guide To Botany
Gardener's Guide to the Solar Powered Garden




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Friday, November 22, 2019

Sample Chapter - Short History of Museums - Teylers Museum

Sample Chapter 
Short History of Museums
Teylers Museum
Dutch merchant Pieter Teyler van der Hulst passed away in 1778 leaving his fortune for the advancement of religion, art, and science. Dutch architect and engineer Leendert Viervant opened an art and book room the next year which became known as the Oval Room. During the ensuing decades the museum grew, becoming Teylers First Painting Gallery in 1838. The facility expanded again in 1885 with the addition of the Instrument Room, and Fossil Room I and later Fossil Room II. The next addition came in 2002 with the addition of the museum shop and multimedia room. Teylers Museum is the Netherlands’s oldest and largest museum.
The Museum
The museum's collection includes Art, books, instruments, coins and medals. Visitors can also visit the museum shop and museum café.
Fossils and Minerals
Teylers Museum 
Spaarne 16 2011
CH Haarlem
Telephone 023 516 0960
info@teylersmuseum.nl

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Girl Scout Troop 40180' Sunday Shopping


Come out and support the Girl Scouts and shop all the wonderful merchants.
Buy a book.

Sunday Shopping
Sunday, November 24, 2019 at 12 PM – 5 PM
Dearborn County Fairgrounds
Abner Hall
351 E. Eads Parkwaykwy
Lawrenceburg In 47025

Monday, November 11, 2019

Sample Chapter - Short History of Gardening and Agriculture - George Washington Carver

Sample Chapter 
Short History of Gardening and Agriculture
George Washington Carver (c. 1864 - January 5, 1943)
The son of slaves Mary and Giles, George’s parents was the property of Moses and Susan Carver who lived in Diamond, Missouri. While an infant, slave raiders from Arkansas kidnapped George, his mother and sister. They were sold somewhere in Kentucky. Moses Giles hired an agent to find them; however the agent only located George, whom he returned to the Carver's. The ending of the Civil War in April 1865 ended the practice of slavery. The Giles kept George and his brother to raise in their home. The two could not attend public school, as they were black. Susan took their education upon herself, teaching the boys to read and write.
Further Education
George decided to continue his quest for education by attending a high school that taught black children in Neosho, Missouri, about ten miles from his home in Diamond. During the years before attending this school he had identified himself as Carver's George. While attending this school, he became known as George Carver. He attended a series of schools, eventually earning a high school diploma at Minneapolis High School in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
College
After Highland University in Arkansas denied him admission because he was black, after they had previously admitted him, he farmed a seventeen acre farm and earned extra money by performing odd jobs. Simpson College eventually admitted him. A skilled painter of plants and flowers, his art teacher encouraged him to attend Iowa State Agricultural College. He became the first black student in the school in 1891. He received a bachelor's degree in 1894 and a master's degree in 1896. He remained at Iowa State as the school's first black professor. During his tenure he gained a reputation as a skilled botanist and researcher. 
Tuskegee Institute
Founder of Tuskegee Institute Booker T. Washington hired Carver to head up its agricultural department in 1896. Carver's goal was to improve the condition of poor farmers who had to farm lands exhausted by extensive cotton farming. During his time at Tuskegee Carver authored numerous agricultural bulletins which he distributed to these farmers. He encouraged a crop rotation of peanuts, sweet potatoes and soy beans. In 1906 he received funding to develop a mobile agricultural educational center from New York financier Morris Ketchum Jesup. He called his innovation the Jessup Wagon and used the mobile classroom to teach better farming methods to farmers.
Later Achievements
His reputation as a researcher and teacher brought him admission to the British Royal Society of Arts and the admiration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Mahatma Gandhi. A staunch advocate of planting peanuts, the United Peanut Associations of America invited him to address their annual convention in 1920. He testified before the United States Congress at their behest in 1921. He authored several more agricultural bulletins, wrote a syndicated newspaper columnist and conducted agricultural speeches during the remainder of his life. He passed away on January 5, 1943 after suffering injuries during a fall in his home. His grave is adjacent to Booker T. Washington at Tuskegee University. 

Monday, November 4, 2019

A History of Indiana Libraries - Ripley County Edition



Description:
The Short History of Libraries, Printing and Language relates the story of printing, language, books, writing and libraries. Learn about the development of ink, papyrus, parchment, paper and the story of Johannes Gutenberg’s printing press. This Ripley County Edition relates the history of early Indiana libraries, the Indiana State Library and Indiana library laws. It includes the libraries of Ripley County, Batesville, Milan, Versailles and Osgood.

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Other Books in the Series
A History of Napoleon, Indiana

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The Bookshelf
101 N Walnut St,
Batesville, IN 47006

(812) 934-5800
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© 2019 Paul Wonning

Friday, November 1, 2019

Sample Chapter - An American Revolution Time Line - 1776 May 11, 1776 - Washington Recommends Raising German Companies

Sample Chapter
An American Revolution Time Line - 1776
May 11, 1776 - Washington Recommends Raising German Companies
Rumors had reached Congress and General Washington on about the impending arrival of German mercenaries hired by the British to fight against the rebelling American colonies. On May 11, 1776 Washington dispatched a letter to John Hancock, President of the Continental Congress, in which he informs him that he has received no further intelligence on the arrival of German troops. In the letter, Washington recommends that Congress, "lest the account of their coming be true, may it not be advisable and good policy to raise some companies of our Germans to send among them when they arrive, for exciting a spirit of disaffection and desertion. If a few trusty, sensible fellows could get with them, . . . they would have great weight and influence with the common Soldiery, who certainly have no enmity towards us, having received no Injury, nor cause of Quarrell from us."
Germans in America
At the time of the Revolution Germans represented about ten percent of the population. These German residents found America an ideal place to settle, as they could own land and form businesses free of the noble class in their native lands that continually oppressed them. The Germans had settled mainly in Pennsylvania and Virginia; however they were present in other colonies as well. They tended concentrate themselves in their own community and continued to speak their own language and continue their own customs. Germans in America had proven to be ardent supporters of the Revolutionary movement and had participated in the conflict since the opening days of fighting. Pennsylvania had recruited four companies of exclusively German sharpshooters.

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Sample Chapter - A Timeline of Indiana History - 1795 - 1800 April 1796 - Chillicothe Ohio Established

Sample Chapter
A Timeline of Indiana History - 1795 - 1800
April 1796 - Chillicothe Ohio Established
Located on the Scioto River, the site is situated in south central Ohio and was part of the Virginia Military District. The name Chillicothe derives from a Shawnee word Chala•ka•tha, which means "principal town." The Shawnee tribe moved to the site in 1758 after a flood destroyed their village of Shannoah, or Sonnontio, also on the Scioto River. After the Treaty of Greeneville the area was opened for white settlement and the Shawnee had to leave.
Nathanial Massie (December 28, 1763 - November 03, 1813)
The son of Nathaniel and Elizabeth Watkins Massie, Nathanial was native to Goochland County, Virginia. Nathaniel served in the Revolutionary War. In 1783 he migrated to Kentucky to farm land his father owned. Massie had studied surveying and began exploring lands north of the Ohio River in the Virginia Military District of the Northwest Territory.
Virginia Military District 
During the period when the United States was attempting to establish a national government Virginia controlled most of the land in the Ohio River Valley. Maryland refused to ratify the Articles of Confederation unless Virginia ceded this vast region to the Federal government. Virginia did cede the land, but kept a large tract located in what is now south central Ohio to use to pay its Revolutionary War Veterans.
Surveying the Land
Many of the Revolutionary War veterans hired him to survey lands they received as grants for their war service. In 1790 Massie surveyed Manchester, along the Ohio River. During his survey work, Massie selected the best lands and bartered them for his surveying work. Thus, Massie acquired significant land holdings in what would become Chillicothe and Ross County, Ohio. Massie placed advertisements in various Kentucky and Virginia newspaper. He offered free lots in the new town to the first 100 settlers that migrated with him to the Northwest Territory. By March 1796 he had attracted about forty men bent of settling in the newly opened lands.
Chillicothe
Massie led this group up the Scioto River to settle at a point where Paint Creek empties into the Scioto River on April 1. He named the new town Prairie Station.  This site proved unsuitable, as it was low lying and subject to flooding. Thus, the settlers moved further upstream to the site of the former Shawnee town and began clearing land for their new settlement. The pioneers called the new town Massieville; however Massie changed the name to Chillicothe. The original plat had 456 lots. By late in the year the new town had taverns, stores and tradesman's shops. The town would later become the capital of the Northwest Territory and then the first capital of the new state of Ohio. Massie would settle in the town. He is interred in Grandview Cemetery, Chillicothe in Ross County, Ohio.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Short History of Museums


Short History of Museums

Description:
Publishing Date to be Announced
Preview Chapter 1
Preview Chapter 2
Preview Chapter 3
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Other Books in the Series

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The Bookshelf
101 N Walnut St,
Batesville, IN 47006

(812) 934-5800
bookshelf101@hotmail.com
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© 2019 Paul Wonning

Sample Chapter - Short History of Museums - Capitoline Museums

Sample Chapter 
Short History of Museums
Capitoline Museums

Pope Sixtus IV donated several bronze statues to the city of Rome in 1471, placing the collection on Capitoline Hill. The museum, still in existence and open to the public, claims the status of the oldest museum in the world. The collection of artifacts and art grew over the years to include ancient Roman statues, inscriptions, art, jewels and other historic artifacts. Pope Clement XII opened the museum to the public in 1734. The museum includes three main buildings linked by an underground gallery that passes under the piazza. Visitors will find a restaurant on the top level that provides a magnificent vista of Rome

Musei Capitolini
Piazza del Campidoglio 1
Capitoline Hill
00186 Roma.
Telephone +39 060608
http://www.museicapitolini.org/en/

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Greenwood Mall Book Show

Greenwood Mall Book Show
Greenwood Mall Book Show
1251 US-31 N
Greenwood, IN 46142
Saturday, November 30 - 9:00 AM - 9:00 PM
Sunday, December 1 11:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Sunday, December 8 11:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Sunday, December 15 11:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Sunday, December 1 11:00 AM - 6:00 PM
Sunday, December 1 8:00 AM - 10:00 PM
Sunday, December 29 11:00 AM - 6:00 PM

Indianapolis Christmas Gift and Hobby Show


Wednesday, November 6
Thursday November 7
Friday, November 8
Saturday, November 9 2019 
10:00 AM - 8:00 PM 
All three days
Indianapolis Christmas Gift and Hobby Show
Indiana State Fairgrounds
https://christmasgiftandhobbyshow.com

Some pics from the event









Thursday, October 17, 2019

Sample Chapter - Short History of Gardening and Agriculture - Steam Powered Farm Equipment

Sample Chapter 
Short History of Gardening and Agriculture 
Steam Powered Farm Equipment
Steam Engines
Thomas Aveling modified a Clayton & Shuttleworth portable steam engine in 1859, creating a self propelled machine that ranks as one of the world's first agricultural tractors. Aveling, and other tinkerers, experimented with the design of the machine over the next several years. By the beginning of the 1870's the shape of the tractor had been developed. The familiar four wheeled design remained dominant for the next several decades. These tractors packed a lot power for tasks like plowing and threshing wheat. The main drawbacks were that they were slow, heavy and hard to maneuver. The heavy machines frequently broke bridges down. They took a skilled operator as if improperly operated they would explode causing death and injury.
Thomas Aveling (September 11, 1824 - March 7, 1882)
The son of Thomas Aveling and Ann Aveling, Thomas was native to Fenland District, Cambridgeshire, Great Britain. His father died when he was young, after which the family migrated to Hoo. There his mother married Rev. John D'Urban. His father apprenticed him to a local farmer, Edward Lake. Aveling married D'Urban's daughter, Sarah. The couple would have six children. Aveling acquired a farm and operated a drainage tile business. In 1859 he modified a Clayton & Shuttleworth portable engine by attaching a long chain between he crankshaft of the engine and the rear axle. This machine became the nucleus of the traction engine that would evolve into the modern farm tractor. Many regard him as the "the father of the traction engine." He invented the steam roller and, along with Richard Thomas Porter founded the Aveling & Porter Company to manufacture steam rollers.
Threshing Machine
The threshing machine performed the work of the flail in threshing wheat. The mechanized thresher separated wheat grain from the straw and chaff in a series of steps. The farmer first fed the bundles of straw into a hopper on the machine. The bundles went into the separator, which was a series of rapidly rotating blades. These blades tore the bundle apart by cutting the twine that held them together and beat the grains from the heads without crushing the grains. The wheat then passed through a series of successively smaller screens that separated the straw and chaff from the wheat grain. The grain fell into a hopper where it was measured and dumped in a sack. The straw and chaff blew onto a nearby straw stack.
Threshing Rings
The mechanical thresher first appeared in 1837 when Hiram A. and John A. Pitts, Winthrop, Maine patented a horse powered threshing machine. This machine remained basically unchanged when steam powered engines first began appearing on farms around the beginning of the Twentieth Century. The threshing machine cost about $4,000 at this time, a substantial sum of money that was out of range of most farmers. Generally, a group of about six to eight farmers pooled their resources and purchased a machine. They would then pay for maintanence costs of the machine as a group. Each farm furnished a team of horses for each 40 acres to be threshed. After the threshing season concluded, the farmers held a meeting to settle accounts and lay plans for the next year.
The Women
While the men worked the threshing machines the women cooked and served the meals. Generally, the women began preparing for the day a week or so ahead of time. Other farm wives in the ring came to help out. On threshing day, the women served three meals, a morning and afternoon lunch and dinner at noon. The lunches consisted of meat and cheese sandwiches, cookies, and lemonade or water. Dinner was usually pan-fried chicken, beef and gravy, mashed potatoes, coleslaw, salads, sliced tomatoes, green beans, corn and other garden vegetables, relishes and pickles, bread or biscuits, along with pies, cakes and puddings. The reader must bear in mind that the quantity of food consumed by a band of hungry men was immense and the women worked without the benefit of air conditioning, refrigeration or modern cooking ranges. They had to carry water into the kitchen from the well in buckets and cook on either wood or coal cook stoves.
The Meals
When the women signaled that the food was ready, the steam engine operator blew the whistle on the steam engine, signaling that work would stop. The men washed their hands at the well or wash basins the women had placed nearby. The women generally brought the food into the fields, or alternately, in a spot near the barn. They women served the food on long tables made from planks. They used china, silverware and glasses. If the farm was large and required more than one day to thresh the grain, this process would repeat until it was done. Typically, the other wives in the ring would help wash the dishes and silverware. At the conclusion of the meal, the steam operator blew the whistle, signaling that work was to begin again.
Once one farm was done, the threshing crew moved to the next farm.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Sample Chapter - An American Revolution Time Line - 1776 - Alexander Hamilton Writes Congress Demanding More Pay for his Troops

Sample Chapter
An American Revolution Time Line - 1776
May 02, 1776 - Alexander Hamilton Writes Congress Demanding More Pay for his Troops
Alexander Hamilton's artillery company was under staffed and underpaid. On May 2, Hamilton tried to rectify both situations by writing the New York Provincial Congress a letter in which he compared the pay rates of other artillery companies with his own. The letter stated:
“You will discover a considerable difference. My own pay will remain the same as it is now, but I make this application on behalf of the company, as I am fully convinced such a disadvantageous distinction will have a very pernicious effect on the minds and behavior of the men. They do the same duty with the other companies and think themselves entitled to the same pay.”
The Congress complied with his request. The number of enlisted men rose to 69 which was twice as many as he needed.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Sample Chapter - A Timeline of Indiana History - 1795 - 1800 - August 07, 1795 – Greenville Treaty Copies Distributed

Sample Chapter
A Timeline of Indiana History - 1795 - 1800
August 07, 1795 – Greenville Treaty Copies Distributed
General Wayne opened the council by passing the calumet of peace to all the chiefs represented. After all had smoked, he passed copies of the treaty, along with the quill pen used by the chief to sign it, to each of the nations assembled. He instructed them to keep the "instrument of writing," and the copy of the treaty to pass along to their children, who would in turn pass it on to their children. He told them to keep in remembrance of the day the Fifteen Fires gave them peace and took them under its protection.
He next admonished them for two incidents that threatened to mar their good work. Someone had stolen the horse of a French trader that had accompanied them. Wayne told the chiefs that they must keep their young men under control. He informed them that a family of settlers that had thought they were safe during the negotiations had been murdered in their cabins the day before. He warned them that they must control themselves lest those seeking vengeance on the slain come into their territory and slay the wrong Indians in retribution.
The general next told them that gift distribution would begin the next day and would proceed in order of the tribes that signed the treaty. The Wyandotte had signed first, thus would receive their first. He assured them that it made no difference who received their gifts first; all would receive them as they became available.
Tarke next rose to praise those assembled for the good work they had concluded and to thank the Great Spirit for appointing this day.
After interpreters had translated Tarke’s speech to those assembled, the general concluded the session by distributing medals to each chief, commemorating the day and the treaty they had signed.
At this, the meeting adjourned.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

48th annual Holiday Bazaar - Batesville



48th annual Holiday Bazaar
November 3, 2019
10:00 AM - 3:00 PM
Batesville, Indiana Primary School

I will have my books set up at the 48th annual Holiday Bazaar in Batesville, Indiana at the Batesville Primary School on Indiana State Road 46. 

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Sample Chapter - Short History of Indiana's Historic Markers - Atterbury Army Air Field

Sample Chapter
Short History of Indiana's Historic Markers 
Atterbury Army Air Field

Title of Marker:
Atterbury Army Air Field
Location:
In front of chapel at Middle Road and Grissom Avenue, Atterbury Army Air Field, Columbus (Bartholomew County, Indiana)
Installed by:
2007 Indiana Historical Bureau and Atterbury-Bakalar Air Museum
Marker ID #: 
03.2007.2
Marker Text: 
Side one:
Construction begun summer 1942 under Captain Stratton O. Hammon, who used broad authority over laborers, suppliers, and railroad; base in use February 1943. More than 1, 000 workers employed during construction. Base was over 2, 000 acres, cost over four million dollars, and included more than one hundred buildings, intended to be temporary.
Side two:
WW II uses included training B-25, B-26, and glider pilots; by 1944, wounded from Europe received here for Wakeman Hospital. Wounded soldiers during Korean War received here. Renamed 1954 to honor Lt. John Bakalar. Base closed 1970. Original building made into chapel; restored and named for Women's Air Service Pilot Jean Lewellen Norbeck 1990s.

Short History by the Author
The task of organizing the mammoth task of constructing the airfields needed to train 70,000 pilots annually fell to General of the Army and General of the Air Force Henry Harley "Hap" Arnold. He moved the responsibility of building air bases from the overburdened Quartermaster Corps to the U. S. Army Corps of Engineer. The Army had no plan for any of the bases, only a set of guidelines that followed General Arnold's concept of "Spartan" simplicity for the bases. There would be no frills or creature comforts at these bases. The buildings would be simple lumber and tar paper construction. These buildings were quite cold in winter and hot in summer. The hangers were of wood or concrete. The guidelines called for one secure hanger to hide the Norden bomb sight, which was top-secret. Atterbury's construction followed these guidelines during its construction. The United States, in the face of major war, needed a lot of air bases and it needed them fast. The site that Atterbury would occupy had been open corn fields. This land needed to be turned into a United States Army Air Field as quickly as possible.
The Atterbury-Bakalar Air Museum preserves the memory and history of this airfield. Located on site, the museum is a treasure trove of memorabilia, history and exhibits covering the Atterbury Army Air Field and Bakalar Air Base. For more information, contact:


Atterbury-Bakalar Air Museum
4742 Ray Boll Boulevard
Columbus, Indiana 47203
812-372-4356
abmuseum@att.net
http://www.atterburybakalarairmuseum.org/

Sample Chapter - Short History of Rivers, Streams and Lakes - Connecticut River

Sample Chapter
Short History of Rivers, Streams and Lakes
Connecticut River

Connecticut derives from the Mohegan Indian tribe’s word, quinetucket, which means “beside the long, tidal river." The 406 miles river flows through four states and is New England's longest river. Its source is in the Fourth Connecticut Lake near the Canadian border in New Hampshire.  During its course generally southwest, it feeds the Third, Second and First Connecticut Lakes. After its next destination, Lake Charles, it continues southwest until it reaches Stewartstown, New Hampshire, where it turns south to form the border between Vermont and New Hampshire. The White River joins it at White River, Vermont a few miles south of the Dartmouth College campus. Another major tributary, the West River, joins it at Brattleboro, Vermont. The Connecticut enters Massachusetts about ten miles south of this junction. It leaves Massachusetts a few miles south of Springfield Massachusetts and enters Connecticut. After passing through Hartford, the river enters the Atlantic Ocean south of Old Lyme, Connecticut.  27 towns in Vermont and 26 in New Hampshire border the river.
History
The broad fertile valley of the river drew several native tribes to its soils before European settlement. These tribes included the Pequots, Mohegan, Mattabesset and the Pocomtuc.
The Dutch
Dutch explorer Adriane Block is the first recorded European explorer to penetrate the Connecticut in 1614. Calling it the "Fresh River, he claimed it for the Dutch as part of the New Netherlands colony. The Dutch constructed Fort Huys de Hoop in 1623 at the current site of Hartford, Connecticut.
The Puritans
Puritan groups from the Plymouth colony began settling along the river beginning in 1635. The main settlements were Hartford, Springfield, Matianuck (now Windsor, Connecticut) and Wethersfield. Another Puritan group out of Cambridge, Massachusetts established Agawam Plantation, now Springfield, Massachusetts. The growing strength of the English colonies forced the Dutch out in 1664.
Industry
Colonists continued to flow into the area and many industries developed. Farms, gristmills and other industries developed. Sometime around 1865 logging drives of trees cut near the Third Connecticut Lake flowed downriver to saw mills in Wilder and Bellows Falls, Vermont. Thirteen dams along the river provide water and recreation for many of the residents that leave nearby.

Wednesday, October 2, 2019

Short History of Fire Fighting - Indiana Edition

Short History of Fire Fighting - Indiana Edition
Description
Learn the story of the fire fighters, companies and fire towers in Indiana. The book includes the histories and locations of the Hoosier State's remaining fire towers and a full listing of the fire fighting museums in the United States and Indiana.
Buy Direct from Author
Softbound Price - $9.99
 Preview Chapter



Other Books in the Series
Short History of Libraries, Printing and Language - Indiana Edition
Short History of Fire Fighting - Indiana Edition
Short History of Railroads- Indiana Edition

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Sample Chapter - Short History of Fire Fighting - Indiana Edition - McCormick's Creek Fire Tower

Sample Chapter
Short History of Fire Fighting - Indiana Edition
McCormick's Creek Fire Tower
Used as an active fire tower from its construction in 1935 until 1967, the McCormick's Creek Fire Tower now serves as a popular observation site for park visitors. Constructed by CCC Company #589, the tower is located on Trail 4 near the Park Office. The elevation of the land the tower sits in is 770 feet  above sea level. The eighty-six foot tall tower's lookout cab measures seven feet along each wall with windows containing nine panes on each wall. The National Historic Lookout Register registered the tower on November 12, 2008. The tower underwent an extensive renovation in 2017. The park has opened the tower to the public.  

Tuesday, October 1, 2019

Preview Chapter - Short History of Gardening and Agriculture - Reaping Grain



Preview Chapter
Short History of Gardening and Agriculture
Reaping Grain 
Cradle Reaper
Also called the cradle scythe or grain cradle, this implement was an adaptation of the scythe. Developed sometime before 1800, the cradle reaper began to see widespread use between 1800 and 1840 in the United States. The cradle reaper consisted of a set of wooden finger shaped spokes attached to the handle of the scythe. The purpose was to catch the stalks of grain and keep them aligned when cut, to make it easier to tie the cut grain into shocks. The McCormick Mechanical Reaper eventually replaced it.
Mechanical Reaper
Several inventors toyed with devising a mechanical reaper during the Nineteenth Century, however it was Robert McCormick that first came up with a design for a working reaper in 1831. He was unable to perfect the device, so he asked his son John to improve it.

Monday, September 30, 2019

Sample Chapter - Time Line of the American Revolution - 1776 - April 15, 1776 - Georgia Congress Passes "Rules and Regulations"

Sample Chapter
Time Line of the American Revolution - 1776
April 15, 1776 - Georgia Congress Passes "Rules and Regulations"
The Georgia Provincial Congress passed document called the Rules and Regulations on April 15, 1776, which many consider Georgia's first constitution. Meant as a temporary measure, the Rules and Regulations served as a means of working with the other colonies to achieve independence. Based on the concept of popular sovereignty, the a written constitution replaced the Rules and Regulations the next year. The nine provisions outlined the general outline of the government, set the pay for various elected officials and set the manner of choosing the delegates to the congress and the commander in chief.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Sample Chapter - A Timeline of Indiana History - 1795 - 1800 - June 30, 1795 - Native Chiefs Ask for Wine

Sample Chapter
A Timeline of Indiana History - 1795 - 1800
June 30, 1795 - Native Chiefs Ask for Wine
During the ensuing days, representatives of the Pottawattamie and Chippewa have arrived at Fort Greenville.
The council convened on June 30, at the request of the chiefs. La Gris rose to speak to the General. He thanked General Wayne for the provisions they had been given during their stay as they waited the arrival of more tribal chiefs. However, they complained of the monotony of the diet and asked for mutton and pork. Additionally, since the weather was turning cooler, they requested wine. The noted that the warriors that had accompanied them were getting restless, as there was nothing for them to do as they awaited the arrival of more tribes.
General Wayne replied that Blue Jacket and several others would soon arrive. He also explained that they had no pork and the little mutton they had was for those that were sick and, rarely, for the officers. He promised them that he would give each of the chiefs a sheep for them to eat and some wine. At that, the meeting adjourned.