Sunday, March 29, 2020

Spring Friendship Flea Market

Mossy Feet Books at the Friendship Flea Market
June 13 - 21, 2020
9:00 AM - 7:00 PM Daily
Some shots from the flea market last September





Saturday, March 28, 2020

Sample Chapter - Indiana's Counties - Dearborn County

Sample Chapter 
Indiana's Counties 
Dearborn County 

County Facts
County Seat - Dearborn County 
Area - 307.42 square miles
Population - 49,331 (2016 estimate)
Founded - March 7, 1803
Named for- Dr. Henry Dearborn

County Government
Administration Offices
165 Mary St
Lawrenceburg, IN 47025
(812) 537-1040


Tourism Information
Dearborn County Visitor Center
320 Walnut Street
Lawrenceburg, IN 47025
812-537-0814
800-322-8198

Thumbnail History
Settlers began filtering into the region that would become Dearborn County in the 1790's, mostly clinging to lands along the Ohio River. When the Federal Land Office opened in Cincinatti on April 6, 1801 there were numerous purchases of land along the Ohio River and in several of the creek valleys leading up to the river.
Indiana Territorial Governor created Dearborn County by decree on March 7, 1803, naming it in honor of Dr. Henry Dearborn. The original Dearborn County boundary lines included an area defined by the Ohio/Indiana Territory border on the east, up to the point where the Greenville Treaty line intersected the Indiana/Ohio border. The county line followed the Greenville Treaty line southwest to the bounds of Clark County on the southwest. The county included all of current Ohio County, most of Switzerland county. Portions of several other Southeastern Indiana Counties were later carved from parts of Dearborn county. Lawrenceburg was chosen as the county seat. Because of a political struggle with nearby Rising Sun, the county seat moved on September 26, 1836 to Wilmington where it remained until April 1, 1844, when Lawrenceburg again became the County Seat through an act of the Legislature on January 3, 1844. The Court House currently in use was built during the years of 1870 and 1871.
First Court September 1803
One fo the first offenders was found guilty of striking a judge with a clap board. Punished by confinement in a pen of logs and rails with head placed between two rails.
First Dearborn County jail was constructed in 1804.

Court House History
Still unfinished

Henry Dearborn (Feb. 23, 1751-June 6, 1829)
The son of Simon Dearborn and his wife Sarah Marston, Henry was a native of Hampton, Massachusetts. After attending local schools, Dearborn studied medicine under Dr. Hall Jackson of Portsmouth. After his apprenticeship to Dr. Hall completed he opened a medical practice in 1772.
Revolutionary War
After hostilities broke out in 1776, he recruited a company of militia and served as its captain. He and his company traveled to Bunker Hill and took part in the fight there. His company next participated in the 1775 Quebec campaign with Benedict Arnold, during which the British captured him. They exchanged him in March 1777. Later that year he fought at the Battle of Freeman Farm, the Battle of Saratoga and the Battle of Saratoga. He gained promotion to lieutenant colonel and endured the winter of 177 - 1778 at Valley Forge. Other actions included the 1778 Battle of Monmouth 1779 Sullivan Expedition that fought against the Iroquois in northern New York. In 1781 General George Washington appointed him as deputy quartermaster general on his staff with the rank of colonel. In June 1783 he received his discharge and migrated to Gardiner, Maine to serve as U. S. Marshal for the District of Maine, which was still part of Massachusetts.
Secretary of War
President Thomas Jefferson appointed him Secretary of War at the beginning of his term in 1801. He served the entirety of Jefferson's term in that capacity. During his term he planned the Amerindian removal from the east to areas beyond the Mississippi River.
War of 1812
During the War of 1812 he recieved appointment as a major general in the United States Army in charge of planning the American assault on Montreal, Kingston, Fort Niagara, and Detroit. His tenure proved ineffective leading to his recall from the frontier and reassignment to an administrative post. He received an honorable discharge from the army on June 15, 1815. President James Madison later submitted Dearborn as a candidate for the Secretary of War position, however the Senate did not confirm the nomination.
Later Life 
President James Monroe appointed him as Minister to Portugal, a post he held until 1824, when he requested recall. He died five years later and is interred in Forest Hills Cemetery, which is near Boston.

Sunday, March 22, 2020

2020 FARM Club Antique Machinery Show

FARM Club Antique Machinery Show
June 25 - 27, 2020
9:00 AM - 9:00 PM
I will have my full display of books set up at the show.
Some shots from previous years shows are below
This is a great event featuring an extensive display of antique farm equipment, live music, events a
Traders Market and much more. Great fun for the entire family.
Click the link for a brochure that has complete information about the event. 












Saturday, March 21, 2020

Sample Chapter - A History of Batesville, Indiana - Batesville Memorial Public Library


Sample Chapter
A History of Batesville, Indiana
Batesville Memorial Public Library
The Batesville Town Board first approached the idea of building a library in Batesville in January 1905. The Board discussed the idea at the January 9 meeting and passed a resolution to approach the Carnegie Foundation for funds to build it on February 27, 1905. The Carnegie Foundation offered ten thousand dollars on condition that the town commits ten percent of that amount annually for the upkeep of the library. This effort failed, as did others later. By 1913, the Carnegie funds in Indiana ran out.
New Life
The effort to establish a new library in Batesville flared into life once again on February 23, 1928. Miss Hazel Warren, representing the Indiana State Library gave a presentation to interested Batesville citizens at the High School. Her talk, "How to Organize a Public Library" outlined different procedures a community may follow in establishing a library. In 1928, Batesville still utilized the Public Library Service, offered by the State Library. Under this system, the Indiana State Library would send a lot of books to a community for the community to use for three months. At the end of that term, the books returned to the State Library, who would then send out another lot of books. Miss Warren stated that Batesville was the largest town in Indiana still using the Public Library Service. She also noted that there were ten townships in Ripley County with no access to a library. Following this meeting, the Parents and Teachers Association began holding meetings during the remainder of 1928. The following year, a group of citizens met at the Memorial Building on April 10, 1929 to discuss plans.
Success
Finally, in 1933, the reading public of Batesville succeeded in establishing a library. The modest beginning of the library consisted of one room at the new grade school building on Mulberry Street. The library would occupy these modest digs until 1938, when room became available in the basement of the Memorial Building on Main Street. Library patrons and staff continued an ongoing campaign to obtain more space for the library. This almost happened in 1945, when three rooms on the top floor of the Memorial Building became available. The new librarian, Haze Andreas, lobbied city officials heavily for the space; however, they gave the space to the Girl Scouts instead. At about this time, Head Librarian Andreas began compiling annual reports to use to try to justify the need for more space. Meanwhile, she made do by having the shop class at the high school build more bookshelves and came up with ingenious ideas to better utilize the space she had. Her first report, in 1945, noted that the library contained 2300 books and 246 cardholders and was open only ten and a half hours per week.
Expansion
The Girl Scouts moved into their new home at the corner of Pearl and Mulberry Street, leaving the top three rooms in the Memorial Building open again in 1948. This time Andreas was successful.  She gained access to these rooms and engineered the move to this more spacious area. Local businesses donated furniture for the expanded library, which would serve the Batesville public until 1974. Mrs. Andreas initiated a number of programs designed to increase library usage. These efforts included a children's story hour, reading clubs and poster contests. The effort succeeded and by the late 1960's the library again needed more space.
Batesville Memorial Public Library
The John A Hillenbrand family donated a tract of land located between Walnut Street, Schrader Street, Elm Street and Hillenbrand Avenue for a new library in 1974. The land had served as the Hillenbrand family home. Hazel Andreas, still serving as head librarian, engineered another move, to the new Batesville Memorial Public Library, which was dedicated on October 20, 1974. Mrs. Andreas retired the following February, after serving as head librarian for thirty years.
George C. and Margaret Hillenbrand Wing
By 1988, the library needed more room, so they constructed an addition that almost doubled the size of the facility. This new George C. and Margaret Hillenbrand Wing was dedicated on October 2, 1988. In 2003, the Library acquired the Cinergy office building on Boehringer Street. They allowed the Batesville Area Historical Society to use the building, now called the Library Annex, as a museum until 2007, when the BAHS moved to its current museum on George Street. The library uses the Annex to host various events and programs. Meeting rooms in the Annex are available for individual or group use. Other services offered by the library include public computers, wireless internet access, meeting rooms and of course, books to read. Visitors will also find DVD's magazines, special collections audio books, ebooks and newspapers. The library also has an extensive genealogy room for local families to use to research their family trees.

Batesville Memorial Public Library
131 North Walnut Street
Batesville, IN 47006-4897
(812) 934-4706
http://ebatesville.com

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Sample Chapter - Gardener's Guide to the Solar Garden - Solar Cell Primer

Sample Chapter 
Gardener's Guide to the Solar Garden 
Solar Cell Primer
Solar electric cells work by converting the sun’s energy to electricity. How a cell does this is using a process called the photovoltaic effect. This process takes advantage of certain materials called semi-conductors ability to convert light energy to electric energy when they are exposed to light. A semi-conductor is a material, either solid or liquid, which has the ability to conduct electricity at room temperature easier than an insulator but less readily than a metal. Currently the best materials for solar photovoltaic cells are crystalline silicone or gallium arsenide.
Photons
All light energy is composed of very small particles called photons. These photons leave the sun at the speed of light, traveling in a straight line to the solar cell in your garden. The photons pass through the semi-conducting material in the solar cell. As they pass through this material, they knock electrons loose from the atoms of the silicon material. These electrons are negatively charged, and as they flow through the material a positive current is also produced which flows in the opposite direction.
Hooking Them Together
Each individual solar cell produces a very small amount of electricity. So the individual solar cells are wired together in modules, which can produce enough electricity to power a small electric device. If more power is needed, the modules are wired together in an array. Arrays can produce quite a lot of power, if they contain enough modules.
Direct Current
The solar cell produces Direct Current. If Alternating Current is needed, the electricity is fed through an inverter, which converts the electricity to AC and can be used as household current.
Simple in Concept
This is a very simplified explanation of how a solar cell works. Quite simple in concept, but very complex both mechanically and scientifically.
First Solar Cell
The first person to discover this photovoltaic effect was a French physicist named Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel in 1839. The term photovoltaic emerged in 1849 by combining the Greek words, phos, which means light, and voltaic, which means electricity. An American inventor named Charles Fritts built the first solar cell in 1883. He constructed it from selenium coated with a thin layer of gold.

Friday, March 13, 2020

Spring Market at the Museum



I will have my books set up at the
Spring Market at the Museum
March 14 - Saturday - 11:00 AM - 5:00 PM
March 15 - Sunday - 11:00 AM - 5:00 PM
Come out, support this great museum and buy a book
For Information about the event, see
https://www.facebook.com/events/577552073026109/

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Sample Chapter - 1776 - Thomas Hickey Joins Conspiracy to Kill Washington

Sample Chapter 
An American Revolution Time Line - 1776 
Early June 1776 - Thomas Hickey Joins Conspiracy to Kill Washington
General Washington had arrived at New York on April 13, 1776 to take charge of the defenses of New York against the expected British invasion of the city. Washington occupied a mansion called Richmond Hill, in Manhattan, to use as his headquarters. The approximately 150 man Commander-in-Chief's Guard made camp on the 26 acre estate. Three taverns in the vicinity served as gathering places for these soldiers, Lowrie's Tavern, The Highlander, and Corbie's Tavern.
Wider Plot
Washington had learned earlier of a plot hatched by British Royal Governor William Tryon, holed up in the HMS Halifax in New York Harbor, and New York Mayor David Matthews to recruit regiments to resist rebel forces in the New York area. The plot went much deeper than that, though details are sketchy. Apparently the larger plot involved recruiting members of the Commander-in-Chief's Guard to kidnap, or kill, General George Washington, Israel Putnam and other senior members of Washington's staff on the eve of the British invasion. They were also to spike cannon and blow up ammunition supplies. The plot included the activation of the Loyalist forces and blowing up bridges and other strategic structures. Tryon had also employed an engraver to print counterfeit bank notes to aid in disrupting the rebel effort. Matthews had recruited a local gunsmith, Gilbert Forbes, to supply guns to Tryon's efforts and supply intelligence on rebel troop movements. If successful, the plot would probably have dealt a fatal blow to the Patriot cause.
Members of the Commander-in-Chief's Guard
Several members of the Commander-in-Chief's Guard met sometime in early June at Corbie's Tavern. It was here that a key part of Governor Tryon's plot began to take shape. Five members of the guard, William Green, Thomas Hickey, James Johnson, Matthew Lynch and John Barnes gathered to share a drink or two. Gilbert Forbes also attended the meeting at the tavern. Details are murky, however it is apparent that Forbes recruited the members of Washington’s Guard to either kill or kidnap Washington, paying them 10 shillings apiece for their efforts. He also recruited them to pass some of the counterfeit money.
Thomas Hickey (? - June 28, 1776)
Historians know little about Thomas Hickey other than that he was an Irishman that had come to the colonies as part of the force attached to Major General William Johnson's command during the French and Indian War. Hickey deserted from the British Army. When hostilities erupted between Britain and the colonies, Hickey joined the Patriot cause. He resided in Wethersfield, Connecticut and had enlisted in Knowlton’s Rangers. The commander of that unit had selected Hickey to serve on the Commander-in-Chief's Guard. Washington had met, and liked, Hickey and considered him one of his favorites. At some point he became disillusioned with the Patriot cause and began exploring ways in which he might undermine it.

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Sample Chapter - Short History of the Post Office - Genghis Khan and the Mail

Sample Chapter
Short History of the Post Office 
Genghis Khan and the Mail
Genghis Khan relied heavily upon the messenger service he developed to govern his huge empire.
Genghis Khan (c.1162 – August 18, 1227)
The son of Yesugei Baghatur and Hoelun, Genghis was probably native to Delüün Boldog, Mongolia and given the name Temüjin. His father, a tribal leader of the important Kiyad tribe. Historical lore relates that at birth Temüjin clutched a blood clot in his hand, considered an omen of future greatness. When Temüjin was about 10 years old a rival Tatars tribe's leader had his father poisoned. Temüjin attempted to claim the leadership position of the tribe, however they did not accept him and abandoned the family. Left to die, the family managed to survive the brutal environment of the Asian Steppe region. Their food consisted mainly of ox carcasses, wild fruit and small game Temüjin and his brothers managed to kill.
Kidnapped
Temüjin and his brother Khasar killed their older stepbrother Begter after he began to make claims to the family's leadership. This would have meant that he could claim Temüjin's mother Hoelun as his wife. An angry Temüjin and Khasar murdered him. Sometime after this a tribe that had been his father's ally kidnapped and enslaved him. With the help of two of his father's loyal followers and a sympathetic guard, Temüjin escaped during the night.
Marriage and Rise to Power
Temüjin married a girl to which he had been previously betrothed, Borte. In addition to the men that had helped him escape, Temüjin was able to gather more of his father's former allies and then joined Toghril, chief of the Kerait.  Temüjin's father had once helped the Kerait and thus gained their friendship. Temüjin proved to be a formidible leader and military strategist. His followers began a campaign of subjection over neighboring tribes, a task at which they had tremendous success.
The Great Khan
At this time the Central Asian plateau north of China consisted of dozens of tribes, including Naimans, Merkits, Tatars, Khamag Mongols, and Keraites.  Temüjin and his allies subdued these tribes one by one in a series of brutal, bloody campaigns. At length at a conference of these tribes in 1206 AD on the shores of the Kerulen river the leaders of these tribes awarded Temüjin with the title Great Khan.
Further Conquests
The Khan's warriors were hardy men that could survive for days riding their tough horses with few provisions and rest. Each rider equipped themselves with up to 16 spare horses, which allowed them extreme mobility and the ability to move quickly over long distances. The Mongols utilized enemy tactics and technology, if it benefited them. Under the Khan's leadership, this army expanded quickly, as conquered foes were frequently given the choice to either join the Khan or face total annihilation. The area governed by the Khan grew quickly as he attacked the Jin Emperor of China Emperor Xuanzong, eventually causing the fall of the empire by 1234. The conquest was completed by his sons, as Ghengis had died earlier. In addition to these conquests, Khan conquered the Khwarazmian Empire, Georgia, Crimea, Kievan Rus and Volga Bulgaria, adding each of these to his Mongol Empire that at his death in 1227 had become the largest contiguous empire on earth. The empire stretched from the Pacific Ocean to Eastern Europe. 
The Örtöö
Khan developed his messenger service, called the Örtöö, sometime around 1200 AD. The word Örtöö translates as the term checkpoint, which was a relay station on the route. At some point the service became known as the Yam, which is a Tatar word for road, related in turn to the Mongolian name for road, which is Zam. The Örtöö consisted of a series of relay stations located from 20 to 40 miles apart. Each station was equipped with horses, food and shelter. A messenger would arrive at the station, hand his message to the next rider in line, then eat and rest. The system grew to include thousands of relay stations. There were 1400 just in China. The Örtöö at one time had 50,000 horses, 6,700 mules, 1,400 oxen, more than 200 dogs, and 1,150 sheep. The service also owned over 6,000 boats and 400 carts. The system provided a means for the Khan and his officials to send messages, mail and intelligence reports. The Khan allowed merchants to use the service free. Abuse of the privilege led the Khan eventually to charge a fee.
The Messengers
The messengers were trustworthy individuals whose duties to the service superseded everything else. The members of the service enjoyed special privileges and carried a tablet called a  paiza that identified them as members of the service and designated their authority to obtain goods and services from the populace when they needed them. The service evolved into the largest and most efficient ever developed until modern times.

Short History of the Post Office


Description:

Publishing Date to Be Announced
Buy Direct from Author
Softbound Price - $ TBA
Preview Chapter 1






Other Books in the Series:
Short History of Libraries, Printing and Language
Short History of Fire Fighting
Short History of Roads and Highways
Short History of Railroads
Short History of the Discoverers
Short History of Gardening and Agriculture
Short History of Public Parks
Short History of Political Parties
A Short History of Traditional Crafts



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Saturday, February 22, 2020

Sample Chapter - November 28, 1799 - John Rice Jones Appointed to Carry Mail

Northwest Territory Seal
Sample Chapter
A Timeline of Indiana History - 1795 - 1800
November 28, 1799 - John Rice Jones Appointed to Carry Mail 
The Buffalo Trace, which stretched from the Falls of the Ohio to the frontier town of Kaskaskia, Illinois, served as a highway for pioneers to enter the Northwest Territory and as a mail route. On November 28, 1799 the United State Postmaster General Joseph Habersham appointed John Rice
Jones to carry mail along the Trace.
John Rice Jones (February 11, 1759 – February 1, 1824)
the son of John and Ann Jones, John was native to Mallwyd, Wales. in Great Britain. Jones gained admittance to the bar and practiced law in London, He married Eliza Powell in 1781. In 1784 Jones traveled to Philadelphia. The next year he returned to England and brought his wife and one son to America. He also had a daughter, Maria, who was in frail health. He left her in the care of relatives. He would move to Louisville, Kentucky in 1784. That same year he joined the force raised by General George Rogers Clark to quell native unrest. Clark established a fort at Vincennes and appointed Jones as Commissary General. His family joined him in Vincennes, however Eliza died in childbirth in 1787. Jones remained in Vincennes until 1807, when he would move to Kaskaskia, Illinois. During his years in Vincennes, in addition to his postal duties, Governor Harrison appointed him to serve as the first Attorney General in the Indiana Territory, and to the Territorial Legislature in 1805.
The Buffalo Trace
The Buffalo Trace began in the prairies of Illinois as the herds of buffalo headed east toward the licks. It crossed the Wabash River near the site of Vincennes, Indiana, providing the French with an ideal spot to establish the trading post that became the city. It crossed southern Indiana, nearing the Ohio River at its shallowest point, the Falls of the Ohio. After crossing the river, the bison traveled across northern Kentucky until they reached the area of the licks. In places, the Trace was up to twenty feet wide. Amerindians used the trace to both hunt the bison and travel cross-country. Since it connected the Ohio, Wabash and Mississippi Rivers the trace provided a highway for the white settlers that wished to go west. Today portions of U. S. 150 follow the Trace, which is now part of the National Scenic Byways Program.
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/byways/byways/76130
The Mail Route
Jones received a salary of $600 per year to deliver the mail every four weeks and to maintain the Trace. Jones improved the Trace and Habersham designated the Trace as a post road on March 22, 1800. Many believe the 130-mile route was the first "western" mail route. Two men carried the mail on foot over the Trace, by now a weekly route.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Sample Chapter - The Discoverers - Bartholomew Gosnold

Sample Chapter
The Discoverers
Bartholomew Gosnold
May 15, 1602 - Cape Cod Discovered By English Navigator Bartholomew Gosnold 
Gosnold launched an expedition to attempt permanent settlement in the New World in 1602. Sassafras was one of the major products they wanted. After reaching the southern coast of modern day Maine on May 14, 1602, he sailed south and encountered Cape Cod. John Brereton, who accompanied the expedition as navigator, recorded the voyage in his journal. The publishing of that journal later that year helped publicize the possibilities of the new land.
Bartholomew Gosnold (1571 – 22 August 1607)
Anthony Gosnold and Dorothy Bacon birthed their son, Bartholomew, near Suffolk, England. He attended the University of Cambridge and studied law at Middle Temple. In 1602 he sought, and gained, backing to mount an expedition to the New World to found a permanent settlement. The trading posts up to this time were of short duration. Because of the desirable products they obtained merchants wanted permanent settlements.
John Brereton (ca. 1571/1572 - ca. 1632)
Brereton came from a prosperous Norwich, England merchant family. He attended Cambridge University, receiving his master's degree in 1593 and his bachelor’s degree in 1596. He entered the ministry by ordination into the Church of England later in 1596. He took a curacy at Lawshall, Suffolk. The parish there included Bartholomew Gosnold's cousins and it is probably through them that he became acquainted with Bartholomew Gosnold. He served as navigator during Gosnold's voyage and kept a journal of their experiences. Upon his return he organized and published them as Briefe and True Relation of the Discoverie of the North Part of Virginia in 1602. This account of their experiences helped publicize the New World and aided later colonization efforts.
Sassafras
The Sassafras tree can grow to sixty feet tall, with straight trunks. Virginia and the eastern part of this New World had bountiful stands of this much desired tree. Sassafras produces two things that the English wanted. Its strong, beautiful wood was a durable building material. The fragrant tree produces rich safrole, oil that is useful for many things. All parts of the tree contain this oil, but the root has the biggest concentration. The oil, distilled from the roots, finds use as an ingredient in perfumes and soaps. A tea made from the roots many believed cured the ague and flavored root beer. Sassafras was banned in 1960 because of a link to liver cancer. Safrol free oils are now permitted for flavoring and use as a tonic.
The 1602 Voyage and Settlement
English efforts to colonize North America had so far failed, but many still desired to establish colonies there to trade with the Amerindians for the furs, tobacco, sassafras and other desirable products. Gosnold, Brereton and thirty-one others set sail from Falmouth, England on March 26, 1602. They arrived on May 14 and discovered Cape Cod the next day. On May 16 they discovered, and named, Martha's Vineyard and Elizabeth Islands. On Elizabeth Island they built a stockade. Brereton planted some experimental crops that included wheat, barley, and peas. These did quite well in the rich soil. The explorers established trading relations with the local tribes and traded with them for the furs, skins, sassafras and other highly desirable items. They considered creating a permanent settlement on that spot, but decided that their numbers were too few and that they had inadequate provisions. They departed for England on July 23, 1602.
Aftermath
Brereton's account, which is still available to read, describes the explorer's experiences in what would become Virginia. He detailed the plants, abundant supplies of fish and wildlife present there. He also wrote about the rich soil and how fast his experimental plantings went. He wrote it to promote the bounty of the new land. Gosnold went on to become an influential member of the later successful Jamestown settlement in 1607.

The Discoverers

Description:
The Discovers will include short biographies of all the early European explorers of the New World. They include Christopher Columbus, Sir Francis Drake, Humphrey Gilbert, Bartholomew Gosnold and many more.
Summer 2020
Sample Chapter
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Softbound Price - $To Be Announced

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Saturday, February 8, 2020

Sample Chapter - A History of Batesville - Bischoff Reservoir

Sample Chapter 
A History of Batesville 
 Bischoff Reservoir
Elevation - 957.43 Feet Above Sea Level
Brief History
Constructed in 1960 on Bob's Creek, the city owned lake provides about 1200 acre feet of water to serve Batesville's need. Since this is about 79% of the lakes capacity, managing for fishing is difficult. Workers drained the lake in 1966 to improve the quality of the water and remove undesirable fish. A fish survey at the time of draining revealed that the lake held about 300 pounds of fish per acre. The city restocked the lake after it refilled with large mouth bass, red ear sunfish, channel catfish, and white catfish.
Location
Bounded by Indiana State Road 46 on the north, Indiana State Road 129 on the west, County Road 1300 N to the south and County Road 450 E, the 200 acre lake serves as a major water supply for the City of Batesville. The thirty-eight foot tall, 640 foot long earthen dam may be seen from County Road 1400 N, accessed from Indiana State Road 129. Residential housing developments, forest and agricultural lands surround the lake. Bischoff's has an average depth of  8.1 feet, with the deepest point about 27 feet. Bischoff's has a watershed of about five square miles.
Water Capacity and Lake Access
With a capacity of 624 million gallons and 1920 acre feet capacity, the lake also affords area anglers with ample catches of channel catfish, large mouth bass, smallmouth bass and white crappie. Anglers will find a concrete ramp public access site on County Road 1400 N, accessed from Church Street in nearby Morris, Indiana east of Batesville on Indiana State Road 46. Boats with gasoline motors of up to six horsepower and electric trolling motors are permitted to use the lake. Anglers must possess an Indiana Fishing License. Bischoff's is also locally known as the Morris Reservoir or the Batesville Reservoir.

A History of Batesville, Indiana


A History of Batesville, Indiana
Description:
A history of Batesville, its organizations, churches, highways, waterways and more.
Publishing Date - TBA
Sometime in 2020


Buy Direct from Author
Softbound Price - $TBA
Sample Chapter 1
Ripley County History Series
Historic Travel Guide to Ripley County
A History of Indiana Libraries - Ripley County Edition
A History of Napoleon, Indiana
Indiana Fire Departments History - Ripley County Edition  - Published Spring 2020
A History of Batesville, Indiana


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Available In Multiple Formats - Ebook And Softbound:
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© 2020 Paul Wonning

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Sample Chapter - Gardener's Guide to the Raised Garden Bed -Garden Soil Types - A Quick Soil Primer

Sample Chapter
Gardener's Guide to the Raised Garden Bed
Garden Soil Types - A Quick Soil Primer
Soil is the top several inches of the earth's crust. Soil is necessary for civilization to exist, as it supports the plant life that sustains forests, plains, agriculture and other habitats. Five basic factors influence the formation of soil, the bedrock, climate, local fauna and flora, topography and the passage of time. The gardener will find three layers of soils underlying their garden, the topsoil, and subsoil and parent material. The parent material is the minerals that originally formed the soil. The subsoil is the intermediate level between topsoil and the parent material and will have some qualities of both. The topsoil is the part that concerns most gardeners.
In the Dirt
On average a soil will contain about twenty-five percent air, forty-five percent mineral matter, twenty-five percent water and about five percent organic matter. These levels can vary according to soil type, location, rainfall and other factors. The average soil will include a number of organisms that live in it. These include earthworms, grubs, fungus, bacteria and plant roots.
Topsoil
Topsoil is the first layer of soil, and is the major concern of the gardener. Topsoil can range from a thin layer over the underlying subsoil, or several inches. Good garden topsoil can contain between two and ten percent organic matter. A good garden soil must have the following qualities:
Good aeration, to allow root penetration and allow oxygen to penetrate the soil
Porous enough to allow drainage, but not so porous as to allow soils to dry quickly
Moisture retentive
Soil Composition
Improving Topsoil
The major effort of the gardener should be to work constantly to improve the topsoil quality and fertility. Fertile, loose topsoil will produce healthy, fast growing plants. Healthy plants will suffer less insect damage, have fewer diseases and produce top quality vegetables with maximum nutrition. Poor management of topsoil can cause them to erode away quickly, exposing the less desirable subsoil.
The gardener will encounter six basic types of soils:
Loam
Clay
Silt
Chalk
Sand
Saline
Note, there are other soil types, but these are the most common.

Loam
Loam is the ideal type of soil for most types of agriculture. This soil will have about equal quantities of sand, silt and clay. It will also boast a high organic content. A good loam has all the qualities listed above, will warm quickly in the spring, be easy to cultivate and is ideal for the greatest number of plant types. The gardener constantly replenishes the organic, humus content of the soil. The gardener can use his fingers to test loam soil. The soil should be dark in color that is smooth to the feel and have a slightly gritty feel. A ball formed by pressing the soil together should crumble easily.
Clay
Clay particles are quite fine and create a tightly packed soil. Clay is high in nutrients and retains water well. It will take clay soils longer to warm in the spring and since these soils have good water retention, they tend to dry out slow. A clay soil will form a ball that does not crumble easily. Damp or wet clay soil is sticky to the touch. It is harder to cultivate, especially when wet as it has a tendency to stick to garden tools. Clay soils will grow good plants, as it is fertile. Improve using mulches, compost or green manure crops to add organic matter. Adding organic matter will also improve drainage.
Silt
Silty soils are silky to the touch and will leave a soil stain on the fingers. These soils heat up slowly in the spring. These soils are quite fertile and have excellent water retention. However, because of this trait, they compact easily and sometimes plants have a hard time extracting nutrients from the dense soil structure. Some plant roots will rot in these soils. If better drainage can be achieved, possibly by using raised beds, silt soils can make an excellent garden site. As with other soils, use compost, mulches and green manures to add organic content.
Sand
Made up of quartz, silica and other minerals, sandy soils feel gritty to the touch. Sandy soils allow water to drain away quickly and escape by evaporation. They tend to be low in fertility. It will not form a ball when rolled between the hands. Plants have difficulty using any nutrients in the soil, as they drain away quickly. These soils do warm up in the spring quickly and are easy to cultivate. Adding compost, using green manures and mulches can increase the quality of a sandy soil.
Peaty Soils
Peaty soils are dark and have a spongy, damp feel when compressed. Its high acidic content leads to slower decomposition of plant matter, leading to lower soil fertility. These soils also heat up quickly in the spring and have excellent water retention. Because they tend to stay wet, the gardener should supply some drainage like tiling it or use raised beds. Using lime or wood ashes can raise the ph level. Add compost or manure to increase soil fertility. These soils make excellent garden soils.
Quick Soil Type Test
Pour a trowel full of soil into a glass jar. Fill with water and shake well. Allow this to settle for several hours. In clay and silt soils, the water will remain cloudy. A layer of soil particles will form on the bottom of the jar. In peaty soils, several particles will float on the surface, some will sink to the bottom and the water will remain cloudy. In sandy soils, the water will be clear and a layer of sand will form at the bottom of the jar. A loam soil will leave the water mostly clear. The bottom should have several layers of soil particles on the bottom of the jar.
Soil PH
The ph scale indicates whether a soil is acid, neutral or alkaline. The ph range scale runs from 0 - 14, with soils below 7 classified as acidic and over 7 as alkaline. Most vegetable crops prefer a range between 5.5 and 7.0. The gardener can use a test kit from a garden supply store to test the ph. Use lime, or wood ashes to correct soil that is too acidic. Use aluminum sulfate to correct alkaline soils. Use care using these materials, as it is easy to overcorrect.

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Sample Chapter - Short History of Political Parties - James Madison on Political Parties

Sample Chapter
Short History of Political Parties
James Madison on Political Parties
Like Washington and many other of the Founding Fathers, Madison distrusted political parties during the time the men labored at crafting the document. Unlike Washington, Madison came to embrace political parties as a means of controlling differing political factions.
To understand Madison's view, we must first understand the two fundamental fears of the Founding Fathers. These were consolidation of power and fear of the majority. The Framers designed the Constitution to inhibit any faction from gaining supremacy and that majority rule would be difficult for any faction to achieve. Madison's view evolved to a point that he believed that the key to controlling factions was to create a large number of them, ensuring that none could achieve a majority. Madison defined a faction as:
“a number of citizens, whether amounting to a majority or minority of the whole, who are united and actuated by some common impulse of passion, or of interest, adverse to the rights of other citizens, or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community.” 
Many readers will see the modern special interest groups as the embodiment of Madison's definition.
Madison came to believe that the best way to avoid the tyranny of the majority was to expand the political sphere of the United States as much as possible, fragmenting political factions and preventing any one faction from gaining a majority. This would force factions to compromise and encourage consensus government rather than the tyranny of majority rule. The construction of the Constitution thus discourages rapid change of policy. Instead, it encourages gradual change over a long period of time, allowing society to gauge the success of certain policies and allow for change along the way. Madison came to understand that political parties were necessary for the proper functioning of the Constitution.
Madison called the form of government that he had helped creat an "Extended Republic."
Note that he did not call it a democracy.
A democracy is a governmental form in  which the people participate directly.
A republic is a form of government in which people elect representatives to represent their views.
In explanation, Madison wrote in the Federalist Papers:
“The two great points of difference between a democracy and a republic are: first, the delegation of the government, in the latter, to a small number of citizens elected by the rest; secondly, the greater number of citizens, and greater sphere of country, over which the latter may be extended. The effect of the first difference is, on the one hand, to refine and enlarge the public views, by passing them through the medium of a chosen body of citizens…”
Madison believed that an extended republic diluted the power of factions. He believed that a democratic form of government would lead to tyranny.

Short History of Political Parties

Short History of Political Parties
Short History of Political Parties

Short History of Political Parties
Description:
The Short History of Political Parties includes the history of the origin of political parties and their evolution in the United States.
Publication date sometime in 2020




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Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Sample Chapter - McCormick's Creek State Park - Nature Center/Interpretive Naturalist Services


Nature Center/Interpretive Naturalist Services 
Sample Chapter
McCormick's Creek State Park 
Nature Center/Interpretive Naturalist Services
Located near the center of the park between Hillcrest and Redbud shelters, the Nature Center is open all year. CCC workers completed construction on the building in 1935. The Nature Center opened the next year, in 1936. It includes exhibits on natural history and is the headquarters for the entire naturalist led activities in the park. Behind the Nature Center visitors will find a self-guiding nature trail.
Visitors will find program schedules at the Nature Center or by calling 812-829-4344. Online, obtain one at this link.

McCormick's Creek Interpretive Center
250 McCormick’s Creek Park Road
Spencer, IN 47460
(812) 829-4344

Fulfilling a vision of Richard Lieber that a nature guide be provided at each Indiana State Park, Lucy Pitschler began voluntarily conducting naturalist hikes in 1923. The popularity of her hikes led to the hiring of full time naturalists at the park in 1927 at McCormick’s Creek and Clifty Falls State Park. The first youth programs began at McCormick's Creek in the 1930's. By 1941 the program had expanded to 8 state parks. Spring Mill State Park began offering cave tours in the mid 1930's. The staff offered two tours, a short one, which cost 10 cents, and a long one, that cost $1.00. 35,000 people took these tours in 1937. By 1949 Shades, Brown County, Clifty Falls, Dunes, McCormick's Creek, Pokagon, Spring Mill and Turkey Run State Parks had summer long programs while spring and fall programs took place at Dunes, Pokagon and Turkey Run.
Lucy Pitschler (c1887 - ?)
The author has been able to obtain only sketchy details about Lucy Pitschler. Apparently the daughter of Heinrich Pitschler, Lucy was probably native to Saxony, Germany. She arrived at Ellis Island in New York on October 25, 1910 when she was 23 years old. An artist and photographer, she migrated to Indianapolis. Lucy established the naturalist service at McCormick's Creek State Park. Dubbed the  "little Lady With Tennis Shoes," Lucy began conducting nature walks at McCormick's Creek State Park. The Nature Study Club of Indianapolis sponsored her activities at the park for three weeks. The following year the State of Indiana began paying Miss Pitschler for her services. Many consider her program as the beginning of the naturalist program in Indiana State Parks. The Department of Natural Resources presents the  Lucy Pitschler Award each year for outstanding naturalists in the Indiana State Park system.


McCormick's Creek Indiana State Park



McCormick's Creek Indiana State Park
Description:
Visitors will find Indiana's first State Park, established in 1916, full of history, hiking, picnicking and other fun outdoor activities. Camp at the campground, luxuriate at Canyon Inn or relax in a family cabin. This tourism and history guide to McCormick's Creek State Park includes a wealth of information about the park, nearby Spencer and Owen County, Indiana. The Owen County area is a wonderful place to spend a family vacation.
Publishing Date - 1/30/2020
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Softbound Price - $6.99
Sample Chapter
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Indiana State Park Travel Guide Series

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Saturday, January 18, 2020

Sample Chapter - Short History of Roads and Highways - Indiana Edition - Mammoth Internal Improvements Act

Sample Chapter
Short History of Roads and Highways - Indiana Edition

January 16, 1836 - Assembly Passed Mammoth Internal Improvement Act of 1836
The Indiana General Assembly passed what many hoped would be a financial boon for the developing state of Indiana. Instead, the Act led to financial ruin.
The State of the State in 1836
When Indiana became a state in 1816, the state was a vast network of forest, prairie, rivers and streams. White settlement clung to the southern counties along the Ohio River, with a sliver of settlement along the Wabash River in the west. Amerindian tribes still claimed the northern two-thirds of the state. By the 1830's, the situation had not changed much. Indianapolis, the new state capital, was a muddy pioneer settlement along the White River. The southern counties had access to the Ohio River, the only good means of transportation. Since only the Wabash River was navigable, other parts of the state had no access to reliable transportation systems. The only roads were a loose, unorganized network of trails cut through the wilderness. The state had begun construction on the Michigan Road, slated to be a main artery between Lake Michigan and Madison on the Ohio River, but construction would not finish until the 1840's. The Buffalo Trace provided a rough highway from Vincennes to Clarksville. By 1830, Indiana had a population of about 600,000 people. Tax revenues for the state totaled around $50,000.
Tax Revenue
Indiana had two sources of tax revenue in 1830, property taxes and poll taxes, each providing about half the state's revenue. Indiana and other states admitted to the Union after 1803 were prohibited from taxing land purchased from the federal government for a period of five years. Thus, by the mid 1830's, vast areas of land that it could not previously tax were entering the tax base. In addition, land sales remained high in the state during the period, so more lands would continually enter the revenue stream.  Indiana expected to double its tax revenue in just a few years. Moreover, anything the assembly could do to increase land values would increase tax revenue. This was especially true if the state switched to a different tax system. The state used a per acre tax system, placing a greater tax burden on agricultural land. The state switched to an ad valorem system in 1835, which permitted the state to tax both land and personal property at a rate based on its assessed value. This system reduced the burden on farmers and increased it on merchants, homeowners and manufacturers.
The Geographic Quandary
The rising star of transportation in the early 1830's were canals. New York had great success with the Erie Canal and there were other examples. Railroads had not yet become mainstream. Thus, most states had canal construction projects. The problem with canals is that they are geographic specific in the benefits they bestowed and widespread in the taxing requirements to produce the revenue to finance them. The assembly struggled for years over this problem. How to tax everyone in the state for a canal that would only benefit one geographic region was the unanswerable question. The answer seemed to be, build them all at once and jump-start an economic boom everywhere in the state. This is what the Mammoth Internal Improvement Act of 1836 sought to do.
Mammoth Internal Improvement Act of 1836
Signed into law by Governor Noah Noble, the act was meant to be his crowning achievement. The law authorized the Indiana Central Canal, the Whitewater Canal, the Wabash and Erie Canal, the Madison and Indianapolis Railroad, paving the Buffalo Trace and Michigan Road. The bill provided for a Board of Internal Improvement, which was authorized to borrow up to ten million dollars, based on the good faith and credit of the State. Jubilant celebrations took place all over the state with the passage of the bill. Governor Noble was cautious because the Assembly had passed the spending portion of his program, but had not followed his tax increase recommendations.
Too Much at Once
The aims of the law, while noble, were much too ambitious. Construction of canals is an expensive business. Construction of the Whitewater Canal was impaired by a flood that washed out much of the completed work. Many of the sites slated for canal construction were in reality not suitable sites. Then the Panic of 1837 set in.
Panic of 1837
This complex event created an economic depression that lasted from about 1837 until 1842. The multiple causes were questionable lending practices in the Western United States, restrictive lending policies enacted by Great Britain and falling agricultural prices. The period before 1837 had been a period of intense economic growth. During this time the prices of cotton and other commodities rose. Land prices also increased. The Bank of England noticed a decline in cash on hand in 1836. They raised interest rates in an attempt to attract more cash. When the Bank of England raised its interest, it forced banks in the United States and other nations to raise their rates. This, along with other events, caused land and cotton prices to fall. The chain of events this set off triggered a depression that caused profits, prices, and wages to fall and increased the unemployment rates. It was not until 1843 that the economies of the major countries rebounded.
Tax Revenues Fall, Then Disaster
The conditions induced by the Panic created an economic depression. Land values fell, as did tax revenues. Instead of having more revenue to work with, the State found itself with less. By 1841, tax revenues were $72,000 while interest payments on the debt reached $500,000. The State was bankrupt. The State had not completed any of the slated projects. It was left to Madison's James F.D. Lanier to use his financial wizardry to convince creditors to take over the projects for a fifty percent reduction in the debt. Creditors were only able to complete two of these projects. Lanier also aided the state with two loans totaling one million dollars. The State managed to repay it by 1870.
Thus, what many consider the biggest legislative debacle of all time ended.

Short History of Roads and Highways - Indiana Edition


Description:
Publishing Date - Sometime in 2020

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Sample Chapter

Other Books in the Series
Short History of Libraries, Printing and Language - Indiana Edition
Short History of Fire Fighting - Indiana Edition
Indiana's Counties









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