Friday, September 13, 2019

Sample Chapter - A History of Napoleon, Indiana - Miles Mendenhall

Miles Mendenhall (1804 - c. 1880)
The son of John and Elizabeth (Betsy) Jennings Mendenhall, Miles was native to South Carolina. Miles married Nancy F Craig, George Craig's daughter, on October 29, 1828. The couple would have six children.  The Mendenhall family migrated to Vevay in Switzerland County sometime around 1815. The family became established as politicians and merchants in the Vevay area.  Census records indicate that the Mendenhall family moved to Napoleon in Jackson Township between 1830 and 1840. He opened a store, known locally as the Elkhorn Store, on Madison Street, Lot 29. The name of the store probably derives from the Elkhorn Association of the Baptist Church. Mendenhall's father in law served as a minister in this church. Mendenhall served as an Associate Judge of Ripley County in 1839 and as Justice of the Peace in Napoleon in 1845. Mendenhall was a major landowner in Napoleon. He acquired his father in law's property after his death, including the property on which the Central House is located on December 16, 1845. The date of his death is unknown; however the last census listing him was around 1880. At that time he was still listed as a merchant. 

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Sample Chapter - Short History of Gardening and Agriculture - Cotton

Cotton
Plant historians believe humans first started growing cotton sometime around 3000 - 4000 BC in India and Africa. During this same period archeologists have found evidence of its cultivation in the Indus River Valley in Pakistan and in Egypt. Cotton did not arrive in Europe until the First Century AD when Arab traders introduced it to Italy and Spain. Christopher Columbus found natives growing the fiber in the Bahamas during his first voyage in 1492.
The Cotton Plant
Cotton belongs to the Malvaceae family.
Family:
Malvaceae - Mallow
Malvaceae (from the genus Mallow, altered from the Greek word. in allusion to the mucilaginous emollient qualities, or mucus canals, of the stems.
The Family Malvaceae is a large family of plants that contains approximately 2300 species in over 200 genera. The family includes okra, cotton and cacao.
General characteristics of the family include alternate, palm shaped leaves. The flowers usually appear as a terminal inflorescence made up by a single flower with five sepals and petals.
Over time humans grew four varieties different varies of cotton
Gossypium arboreum L. - Indus Valley
Gossypium herbaceum L - Arabia and Syria
Gossypium hirsutum Mesoamerica
Gossypium barbadense - South America
Most modern growers across the world grow the species Gossypium hirsutum.
Wild cotton is a perennial shrub that is adaptable to a large variety of climates. Cotton varieties are found in arid, semi-arid and tropical environments. The plants can grow to six feet tall in cultivation. Wild cotton plants can grow up to twenty feet tall. Most cotton species are a shrubby perennial; however most cotton farmers grow the plant as an annual, replanting it every year. The broad, lobed leaves can have from three to five lobes. The flowers can be yellow or white, which darken, usually to a dark pink, by the end of the first day. The flowers mature to form a rounded seed bearing capsule called a "boll." The boll is filled with a fibrous material that surrounds the seeds. The fiber, cotton, is the most valuable part of the boll; however the seed also finds use ground into meal or pressed into oil. The cotton fibers can be white, brown, green or a mixture of these colors.
Cotton Cultivation
Cotton seeds are generally planted in rows from three to five feet apart. In the United States, planting generally begins in March and April, after plowing and harrowing the ground. About eighty days after planting the plants begin to flower, followed by the development of the green, triangular pods called bolls. The bolls mature from sixty to eighty days after this. The ripened boll bursts, allowing the cotton fiber to be visible. The boll has between seven to ten seeds embedded within the cotton fiber.
Cotton Harvesting
Harvesting the cotton historically has been a labor intensive affair. The cotton plant did not mature all the cotton at once. Instead, bolls ripened at intervals, creating a lengthy harvest time. Workers had to return to the fields twice, or more, to harvest all the bolls. If early ripening bolls were left on the plants until all matured the cotton fibers in the earlier ones deteriorated until they were unusable, thus causing a loss of a substantial amount of the crop. Thus, workers had to manually pick the cotton as they drug sacks that were ten feet long through the field behind them. These bags weighed as much as 100 pounds when they were full. Plantation owners expected workers to harvest two of these bags a day. The sharp cotton spikes usually cut the worker's hands as they worked. They had to repeat this process two, three or more times during the growing season, as the cotton plant would continue to produce bolls until winter set in. It was not until the 1940's that an efficient cotton harvester was developed.
Author note: During the period before the Civil War the workers were most likely slaves. After the Civil War, they would most likely have been sharecroppers. The author does not intend to delve deeply into slavery in this book; he merely wants to present the culture of growing and harvesting the cotton, as well as processing the fiber into cloth. The author will have a separate brief article later in this section dealing with slavery and the slave’s role in cotton. 
Cotton Harvesters
Samuel S. Rembert and Jedediah Prescott of Memphis, Tennessee made the first recorded attempt to build a mechanical harvester, receiving a patent for their device in 1850. The device did not become successful. Over the next century numerous attempts were made to invent a mechanical picker. These used a variety of methods, including pneumatic, which used a blast or suction of air, static electricity collectors, strippers and many others. All were unsuccessful. John Rust came up with idea for the first successful cotton picker. He tried a variety of methods, none of which worked. He settled on a spindle type of collector which had a spindle with a smooth surface. He moistened the spindle after he remembered that, as a boy, he picked cotton in the morning, the dew moistened cotton stuck to his fingers. He also noted that his grandmother had moistened her fingers while threading her spinning wheel with cotton to get it to adhere. He and his engineer brother, Donald, built and tested the device, which worked. The International Harvester company picked up on the idea and developed third own version which used a barbed spindle instead of a smooth one like Rust's machine. They developed this machine in 1942, however it was in the early stages of World War II and manufacturers needed most of the steel to produce the tanks, weapons and other materials necessary to wage large scale war. Thus, production of the machine was limited. The Hopson Planting Company near Clarksdale, Mississippi, managed to produce the first crop of cotton planted and harvested entirely by machine in 1944. At war's end, the mechanical cotton picker began taking over the tedious job of picking cotton. Meanwhile, cotton hybridizers began developing cotton varieties that matured their crop all at once instead of over an extended period of time. These varieties also held the bolls further off the ground, making it easier for the harvester to do its job.
Removal of the Seeds
The cotton boll thus consists of seeds and the cotton fiber. The seeds make up about two thirds of the weight of the boll, the remainder being the lighter weight mostly cellulose cotton fibers. Removal of the seed from the fiber in the early days of cotton growing was a problem, as they needed to be removed by hand, a tedious chore.
Spinning the Cotton
Spinning tufts of fiber into thread, or yarn, is a craft that dates back to prehistoric times. The earliest form of spinning fiber into yarn was to roll tufts of fibers down the thigh with the hands. The rolling action twisted the fiber into yarn. The spinner kept adding tufts until they had the desired length. The next step up in spinning technology was to wind the fibers in a loose wad around a long stick called a distaff. The spinner attached a few strands of fiber to a tool called a spindle, which is a short, round, weighted stick. The spinner spins the loose fibers, twisting them, while pulling more fibers from the distaff. As the resulting yarn gains length, the spinner stops to wind the yarn around the spindle, and continues the process until they have a roll of yarn, ready for weaving into cloth. This was a daily chore that women performed, spinning wool, flax fibers, cotton or animal hair into thread. Historians are unsure of when the first spinning wheels appeared, however many think the originated sometime around 1030 in the Arabian world. From there, it spread to China and then to Europe. The spinning wheel was the first step in mechanizing the spinning process. Using the spinning wheel, the spinner starts twisting the wool with the fingers to form a thread by hand. When the spinner has a sufficient length, they thread the yarn through an orifice in the end of the spool, through hooks on a part of the spinning wheel called a flyer. The yarn is then tied securely onto the spool. The spinning wheel has groves that run to another groove on the end of the spool. An arm of the wheel attaches to a foot pedal by means of a crank. When the wool is secured to the spool, the spinner holds the bundle of fiber in the hand and gives the wheel a gentle push, starting it. The spinner can then work the fibers into thread, called carding, which the flyer twists before it wraps around the spool. The spinner keeps the wheel spinning by pumping with the foot while performing this operation. The spinning wheel made the spinning process go much faster than using the distaff and spindle.
Mechanizing the Process
This was the process used to spin cotton, wool, flax and other fibers into yarn for centuries. Lewis Paul and John Wyatt devised the first type of mechanized spinning in 1738. Over time water wheels and then steam engines provided power for the spinning apparatus. Today the process has been fully mechanized, however many crafters still practice the age old art of using the spinning wheel and the spindle and distaff methods.
Weaving 
Weaving threads into cloth is an ancient art that dates back into prehistory. Archeological evidence indicates that it appeared independently in the Middle East, Africa, Asia and the Americas at different times. The simplest form of weaving was the band weaving method. In this process, the weaver simply tied thread to two sticks an equal distance apart. Then she would weave the cords, or thread, between the tied threads, creating narrow bands of cloth. They could wrap these narrow bands around them to form skirts, kilts or other apparel. Or they could sew the bands together to make something larger. Sometime around 6000 BC weavers started building looms. The first ones were simply a wooden frame on which they could tie the thread, or cord, and then weave other threads between them. This was a slow process and the cloth produced this way was quite expensive. Over time they developed the shed rod, which is a stick you could run between the threads fastened on the loom, separating every other thread. They next used a tool called a sword to raise half the cords at the same time. The invention of a device called a heddle road, sometime around 500 BC, allowed the weaving process to go much faster, lowering the price of the finished cloth. People living in different areas of the world used different types of cloth. In South America the natives used cotton and the fur of alpacas and llamas. In Medieval Europe it was mostly wool, linen, nettle cloth and cotton. Asia developed the silk industry, but also wove using various types of plant fiber like abaca and banana. Other improvements to the loom and the weaving process in the Eighteenth Century during the Industrial Revolution led to the construction of large mills in which thread was spun and then woven into cloth.
Cotton Prior to 1793
Prior to 1793 removing the seeds from the cotton boll was a labor intensive process that limited cotton production to about 13,000 bales in the United States. Wars between Britain and France limited Britain's access to French sources of the cloth. Improving spinning and weaving technologies had made cloth production much more efficient. The limiting factor of cotton production was the seed removal process. Slaves working on the plantations in the south could only remove the seeds from about one pound of cotton a day. Eli Whitney changed all of that in 1793 with the invention of his cotton gin.
Eli Whitney (December 8, 1765 – January 8, 1825) 
The son of Eli, Sr. and Elizabeth Fay Whitney, Eli was native to Westborough, Worcester County, Massachusetts. Whitney's mother died when he was eleven years old. At fourteen he started a nail manufacturing business in his father's workshop to supply much needed nails on a machine of his design during the Revolutionary War. He also made ladies' hat pins, the only hat pin maker in the county. His parents, including his new stepmother, opposed his desire to attend college, so did farm work and teaching to acquire the funds to attend Yale, from which he graduated in 1792. He had intended to practice law, but accepted a position as a private tutor in South Carolina.
To Georgia Instead
During his trip to South Carolina he met Catharine Littlefield Greene, the widow of General Nathaniel Greene. Upon his arrival in South Carolina he found that the salary he would receive was only half that promised. Instead of going to South Carolina, Whitney turned the job down and accepted an offer from Mrs. Greene to visit her plantation in Georgia. During his stay the plantation manager, engaged to Mrs. Greene, expressed his disgust at the difficulty of removing seed from cotton. Mrs. Greene invited him to present the problem to her guest, Eli Whitney, telling him that Eli "could make anything."
The Cotton Gin
Whitney observed slaves removing the seed from the cotton boll, paying particular interest in their hand movements while removing the seeds. In a few hours he built a machine that duplicated those movements. His machine dramatically increased the amount of cotton a slave could process in a day.
Patent Disputes
Unfortunately for Whitney, word about his revolutionary machine spread across the Georgia countryside like wildfire. Someone broke into his workshop and copied his design before he could file papers for a patent. When he did receive it, he spent the money he made on the machine battling patent infringements, thus instead of making him wealthy, the legal battles left him almost bankrupt.
Interchangeable Parts
Whitney turned his attention to making muskets. He had conceived the idea of using interchangeable parts to manufacture muskets. Many attribute the Whitney with the invention of interchangeable parts, however this idea was older that Whitney, having first been developed much earlier. Whitney developed and promoted the concept during his work on muskets, an endeavor he began in 1798. Until Whitney, all guns were made by hand by skilled gunsmiths. Thus, each part of every gun was unique and there was no standardization of parts. Parts from one gun would not fit another. Whitney studied the gun making process, and then designed a gun to suit his concept. He made a template for each part and used the template to make the parts. Thus, each gun after assembly was identical to another using his process. The process sped up the manufacturing process. He promoted the idea to other manufacturers and in the process changed the face of manufacturing in the United States.
Marriage
In 1817 Whitney married Henrietta Edwards. The couple would have four children.
Death
Whitney passed away of prostrate cancer in 1825. During the course of his illness he invented a number of devices to help ease the pain of his disease. He is interred at New Haven's historic Grove Street Cemetery.
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Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Time Line of the American Revolution - 1776


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Colonial American History Stories - 1215 - 1664
Colonial American History Stories - 1665 - 1753
Colonial American History Stories - 1753 - 1763
Colonial American History Stories - 1763 - 1769
Colonial American History Stories - 1770 - 1774
Time Line of the American Revolution - 1775


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Preview Chapter - Time Line of the American Revolution - 1776 - South Carolina General Assembly Establishes Court of Admiralty

Time Line of the American Revolution - 1776
Time Line of the American Revolution - 1776
A Journal of the War of Independence
Book 2
South Carolina General Assembly Establishes Court of Admiralty
April 11, 1776 - South Carolina General Assembly Establishes Court of Admiralty
On April 11, 1776 the South Carolina Assembly passed a bill that established a Court of Admiralty to "have jurisdiction of all cases of the capture of ships and other vessels of the inhabitants of Great Britain, Ireland, British West Indies, Nova Scotia, East and West Florida; to establish trial by jury, in the Court of Admiralty, in cases of capture; and for the other purposes therein mentioned."
Admiralty Court
An admiralty court has jurisdiction over all maritime contracts, torts, injuries, and offenses. One duty of the admiralty court was to decide if a prize taken in wartime by a privateer was a legal prize, under the terms of the letter of marque . During the Revolutionary War most admiralty courts did not allow an appeal on a judgment to the Continental Congress. Of the twelve admiralty courts established, only Maryland and New Hampshire allowed an appeal to Congress. In the remainder a decision by a judge was final.

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Thursday, September 5, 2019

Sample Chapter - Gardener’s Guide to Gardening Tools - Garden Trowels

Gardener’s Guide to Gardening Tools
Garden Trowels
A garden trowel is an indispensable tool for every gardener. All gardeners should have one trowel and it is best to have several for different purposes. The word trowel derives from the Latin word "truella", which means "small ladle". A trowel can serve as a ladle but that is really just one use for a trowel. Indeed, a trowel is the most used tool in the gardener’s toolbox so it is important to get a good one. Nothing is as aggravating as a poor quality trowel that bends when you try to dig. Additionally, a poorly designed handle tires the hand and causes blisters.
There is an incredible variety of hand trowels available to the modern gardener. The gardener will find wood handle trowels and plastic composite trowels. Also available are aluminum and stainless steel trowels. New ergonomic designs make gardening easier on the hands. They also make it more accessible to those with repetitive stress injury and arthritis. These new designs include gel filled handles and curved designs that are more natural for the hand to hold while using them.
Finding a good garden hand trowel from this vast selection of trowels is a bit confusing. So take your time and then choose the garden hand trowel best suited for your needs.
Ergonomic Trowels
Ergonomic trowels use a new design to provide ergonomic ease of use. Some of the new ergonomic trowels help gardeners with arthritis continue their garden activities. These tools also help gardeners without those disorders to garden with less stress to their hands and wrists.
The ergonomic design of the trowel's handle allows the gardener to use a more natural position while working. A cushioned grip helps prevent blisters. These trowels are usually composed of an alloy consisting of cast aluminum and magnesium so they are light and strong. The blade’s design allows you to punch into the soil easily and lift a manageable load of soil. The curved shapes provide a more balanced transfer of energy from the hand and wrist to the trowel. This reduces hand fatigue common when using a hand garden trowel.
Gel Ergonomic Trowels
Gel ergonomic trowels provide a cushioned grip that prevent blisters and make working in the garden more fun. Gardeners abuse their hands a lot with all that digging, pruning and chopping. Any tool which helps reduce that abuse is a welcome addition to any gardener's tool chest. A gel grip trowel helps your hands by incorporating a cushioned, gel filled handle into the garden trowel's design.
This gel flexes and provides cushioning to hard-working fingers while digging. Some of these feature a serrated edge to open bags of fertilizer or other gardening material and to cut roots while digging. Others have stainless steel blades.
Stainless Steel Trowels
Stainless steel is an ideal component to use to make trowels. It is strong, durable and resists rust. They also polish to a high sheen so they are attractive as well. The shiny metal is easy to spot if the gardener misplaced the tool while pursuing other projects in the garden. Stainless steel trowels usually have wood handles. These trowels are prone to rusting over time.
Nursery Trowels
The small, lightweight nursery trowel works well in tight spaces. The long handle of the nursery trowel allows you to reach into tight spots and the small, light blade makes it an ideal trowel for women to use.
Soil Scoop Trowels
A soil scoop is a specialized trowel that will certainly find many uses in and around the garden. The scoop is great for those who mix their own potting soil, as it will allow you to scoop vermiculate, peat moss and other soil components. The scoop will also work great to pot up plants and fill bedding packs for small transplants. Using the scoop, you can pick up potting soil from the bag or bin and place it where you want it. This help to fill in around roots under and around stems and leaves.
A soil scoop will work better than a trowel to fill in soil around newly transplanted shrubs and flowers in the garden. It can also scoop fertilizer and other bulk garden products into spreaders. Specialized bonsai soil scoops work great to fill soil in and around the small pots used in bonsai. Their unique shape fits in under the leaves and branches of these miniature trees better than a trowel. The right soil scoop fills a void left by the hand trowel. Standard trowels are great for digging and weeding. However, their shape is usually not suitable for scooping soil for potting and bonsai needs.
Aluminum Trowel
Aluminum trowels are strong, durable and lightweight. Aluminum resists corrosion, so if you accidentally leave your trowel out in the rain it will not rust. Since aluminum trowels are cast in one piece, the blade will not separate from the handle, as it will with some other types of trowels. Aluminum is a soft metal and it will not hold a sharp edge as a steel trowel will. Since it is not a strong as steel, aluminum garden trowels may bend easier if you are digging in heavy soil. The blades of an aluminum trowel may also chip if you strike a rock while digging. Aluminum trowels usually have a plastic grip on the handle to cushion your hand. Rubberized grips are easier on the hand than the polypropylene ones.
Wood Handle Trowels
The traditional handle for a garden trowel has been wood. Wood, usually a hardwood like ash or hickory, is the traditional choice for a handle for a trowel. Attractive, strong and durable many manufacturers still make trowels with wood handles. However, it tends to split, especially if you accidentally leave the trowel out in the weather.
Trowel Maintenance
Protect the trowel from rust with a coating of old motor oil or cooking oil when not in use. A good spray with aerosol cooking oil before using will make the trowel easier to clean when finished with it. Alternatively, fill a bucket with sand and saturate it with oil. Use this to dip your hand tools in to clean them and add a protective sheen of oil to help prevent rust. Sometimes it is helpful to file or grind the edges of steel trowels to a sharp edge to make it easier to cut into soil. Paint the handles or blades a bright orange or yellow to make them more visible. This makes it less likely to lose the trowel or leave it out in the weather.
The wide variety of trowels on the market can intimidate even the most seasoned gardener. Trowels come in different shapes, sizes, materials and colors. Picking the right type of trowel is easier if the gardener is aware of the many different types available and the uses of each.

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Wednesday, September 4, 2019

A Timeline of Indiana History - 1795 - 1800




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Other Books in the Series
Indiana’s Timeless Tales - Pre-History to 1781
Indiana’s Timeless Tales - 1782 - 1791
A Timeline of Indiana History - 1792 - 1794
A Timeline of Indiana History - 1795 - 1800

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Sample Chapter - A Timeline of Indiana History - 1795 - 1800 - Treaty of Greenville - Treaty of Muskingum River Debated

Sample Chapter
A Timeline of Indiana History - 1795 - 1800
July 18, 1795 - Treaty of Greenville - Treaty of Muskingum River (Fort Harmar) Debated 
The council this day opened with an address from Little Turtle, who stated that the Shawnee had had nothing to do with the Treaty of Muskingum River. He charged that the Six Nations tribes had been behind the signing of that treaty and that he had not been there. He further stated that the Six Nations representatives had seduced the younger chiefs of their tribes to sign the treaty. He professed ignorance of the treaty and wanted to know what it said before agreeing to it.
At this, General Wayne professed that he would endeavor to explain to them the Treaty of Muskingum River the next day when they met.
Blue Jacket and Chippewa Chief Massas Arrive
Blue Jacket and Chippewa Chief Massas arrived at Fort Greenville in the evening and were received in the council house. Chief Massas indicated that he had been at the negotiations during the Treaty of Muskingum and had a copy of that treaty with him; indeed it had been his reason for coming to the council. The General welcomed Massa to the council and promised him that upon the conclusion of the council, he would provide provisions for him and his people.

Tuesday, September 3, 2019

Short History of Railroads




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Sample Chapter - Short History of the Railroad - Delaware and Hudson Canal Company

Sample Chapter 
Short History of the Railroad 
Delaware and Hudson Canal Company
Two states, New York and Pennsylvania passed laws in 1823 and 1826 authorizing the construction of a canal, primarily to transport anthracite coal from the Wurts' mine in Pennsylvania from the Delaware to the Hudson River. Canal officials broke ground on July 13, 1825. The Delaware and Hudson Canal Company opened for business in October 1828. The Pennsylvania assembly authorized the construction of a gravity railroad, owned by the Delaware and Hudson Canal Company to transport the coal from the mine to the canal.
Delaware and Hudson Gravity Railroad
The Pennsylvania assembly authorized the construction of the April 8, 1826 on April 8, 1826. The railroad company tried the first steam locomotive to run in the United States, the Sourbridge Lion, on August 8, 1829. The name derived from the lion's face that adorned the front of the locomotive. The Foster, Rastrick and Company of Sourbridge, England manufactured the locomotive earlier in the year. The company had transported the locomotive in parts from Liverpool to New York on the ship John Jay. It arrived sometime in June or July and was taken to West Point Foundry in New York where workers assembled it. They tested it at the foundry, igniting the curiosity of nearby people. After transporting the locomotive to Honesdale, Pennsylvania, company officials prepared it for its first demonstration run. The company had specified that the locomotive weigh no more than four tons, as they had constructed wooden tracks with iron strips fastened to them. The locomotive actually weighed in at over seven tons. The engine operated admirably doing its three mile test run on August 8 1829. However, it was far too heavy for the rails and was never used. Workers used the locomotive for parts. The Smithsonian Institute acquired the boiler and a few other parts, which was all that was left, and has it on display in Washington DC.

Monday, September 2, 2019

Indiana's Historic Markers

Indiana's Historic Markers 


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Preview Chapter - Indiana's Historic Markers - The Wayne Trace

Preview Chapter 
Indiana's Historic Markers
The Wayne Trace
Title of Marker:
The Wayne Trace
Location:
 0.1 mile north of SR 101 and US 224, 6640 N SR 101, west side of road, 3 miles east of Decatur. Formerly 01.1966.1 (Adams County, Indiana)
Installed by:
Erected by the Society of Indiana Pioneers 1977
Marker ID #: 
01.1977.1
Marker Text: 
General Anthony Wayne and the Legion of the United States passed this way on October 30, 1794, in route from Fort Wayne to Fort Greenville, ending the western campaign against the Indian Confederacy. The Legion spent the previous night camped 2.6 miles N.N.W. of here.

Brief History By the Author
The Indiana Historical Bureau Board currently has this marker under review. Concerns about lack of primary sources, the exact location of the Wayne Trace and the site of General Wayne's camp are the primary concerns. Find the report here. Historians  know the Wayne Trace existed and passed through Adams County, but have verified little if any of the information on this marker. No evidence exists that Wayne's force camped at the location indicated on the marker.

Fort Wayne
After the defeating a confederation of Amerindian tribes at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, General Anthony Wayne continued west, building forts as he went. On October 22, 1794 his forces captured the portage between the Wabash River and Lake Erie. General Wayne had a fort built at the junction of the Maumee, St. Joseph and St. Mary's Rivers. Calling it Fort Wayne after himself, he and his troops occupied the fort. The defeated Amerindian tribes indicated a desire to negotiate a treaty. Wayne and his troops traveled along the Trace to Greenville. The Trace followed the course of the St. Mary's River from Fort Wayne southeast. It entered the current state of Ohio from east/central Adams County Indiana and met the road he had constructed earlier to connect Fort Greenville with Fort Defiance.