Monday, September 30, 2019

Sample Chapter - Time Line of the American Revolution - 1776 - April 15, 1776 - Georgia Congress Passes "Rules and Regulations"

Sample Chapter
Time Line of the American Revolution - 1776
April 15, 1776 - Georgia Congress Passes "Rules and Regulations"
The Georgia Provincial Congress passed document called the Rules and Regulations on April 15, 1776, which many consider Georgia's first constitution. Meant as a temporary measure, the Rules and Regulations served as a means of working with the other colonies to achieve independence. Based on the concept of popular sovereignty, the a written constitution replaced the Rules and Regulations the next year. The nine provisions outlined the general outline of the government, set the pay for various elected officials and set the manner of choosing the delegates to the congress and the commander in chief.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Sample Chapter - A Timeline of Indiana History - 1795 - 1800 - June 30, 1795 - Native Chiefs Ask for Wine

Sample Chapter
A Timeline of Indiana History - 1795 - 1800
June 30, 1795 - Native Chiefs Ask for Wine
During the ensuing days, representatives of the Pottawattamie and Chippewa have arrived at Fort Greenville.
The council convened on June 30, at the request of the chiefs. La Gris rose to speak to the General. He thanked General Wayne for the provisions they had been given during their stay as they waited the arrival of more tribal chiefs. However, they complained of the monotony of the diet and asked for mutton and pork. Additionally, since the weather was turning cooler, they requested wine. The noted that the warriors that had accompanied them were getting restless, as there was nothing for them to do as they awaited the arrival of more tribes.
General Wayne replied that Blue Jacket and several others would soon arrive. He also explained that they had no pork and the little mutton they had was for those that were sick and, rarely, for the officers. He promised them that he would give each of the chiefs a sheep for them to eat and some wine. At that, the meeting adjourned.

A Timeline of Indiana History - 1795 - 1800




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Thursday, September 26, 2019

Sample Chapter - Short History of Railroads - Railway switch patented by Charles Fox


Sample Chapter 
Short History of Railroads 
Railway switch patented by Charles Fox
1832 - Railway switch patented by Charles Fox
Before the railway switch, railroads used a device called wagon turnplates or a sliding rail.
Sliding Rail
This device resembled the modern turntable used to turn locomotives around or move them to different tracks in a train yard. In the sliding rail, the track was mounted to a circular wheel that rotated around the center of the device. The wheel's diameter was governed by the length of the wagon used on the railroad, or tramway. To switch the device, the horses pulled the wagon onto the turnplate and unhitched. A tramway employee then had to rotate the turnplate so the rails matched that of the track he wanted to switch it to. Then the horses were hitched and the wagon could move along the new route. This was a cumbersome process that limited wagon size to that of the diameter of the turnplate and limited the weight on the wagon. Mr. Fox's invention changed this.
The Rail Switch
The rail switch, or railway points, employed a set of linked, tapering rails that are synchronized in movement. These moving rails can be moved into one of two positions, one that allows the train to go straight or another position that turns the train onto a divergent set of rails. In the days before electrically powered switches, a railroad employee still had to manually operate the switch; however the train remained moving as it crossed the switch. The rail switch could accommodate any length of locomotive or rolling stock. As railroads switched over from horse drawn wagons to steam driven locomotives the rail switch proved a much more versatile mechanism for switching engines. The turnplate survives, with many improvements, as a means of moving locomotives around in a train yard or turning an engine around.
Turntable

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Preview Chapter - Short History of Roads and Highways - Thomas MacDonald

Preview Chapter 
Short History of Roads and Highways - Thomas MacDonald
The son of John and Sarah Elizabeth Harris MacDonald was native to Leadville, Colorado. During his childhood he received his education at elementary and high school at public schools in Montezuma, Iowa after his family moved to Iowa. His father owned lumber and grain dealerships, which required transportation of grain and lumber on horse drawn wooden wagons. The poor state of the roads, which were impassable for much of the year, disgusted him. He attended college Iowa State College of Agricultural and Mechanical Arts. He studied road building and became involved in the Good Roads movement after graduating with a bachelor's degree in civil engineering in 1904. He married he married Elizabeth Dunham in 1907. The couple would have two children. He received appointment as the Assistant in Charge of Good Roads Investigation in Iowa that year. He became Iowa's head civil engineer in 1913 and played an instrumental role in the passage of the Federal Aid Road Act of 1916. Congress appointed him as the head of the Bureau of Public Roads on July 1, 1919. He would remain at the head of the bureau until his retirement in 1953. During his tenure he was the chief architect of the highway system in the United States. The Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921 was his innovation. He supervised the construction of 3.5 million miles of highways and helped lay the foundation for Eisenhower's U.S. Interstate Highway System.  

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Preview Chapter - Short History of Rivers, Streams and Lakes - Kennebec River


Preview Chapter 
Short History of Rivers, Streams and Lakes
Kennebec River
Kennebec River, Maine
Length - 230 miles
Drainage Area - 5,870 square miles
Discharge - 5,893 million gallons/day (avg.)
The Kennebec River flows out of Moosehead Lake in West Central Maine and flows 230 miles to discharge into the Atlantic Ocean near Popham Beach.
Moosehead Lake
Fed by numerous small tributaries and the Roach River, Moosehead's primary contributor is the Moose River, which flows from Brassua Lake. Moosehead Lake is the largest mountain lake in the eastern United States. The Kennebec River begins at two points in the lake, the West Outlet, ad, Maine and flows about three miles southwest to Indian Pond. The Kennebec flows past the Harris Station Dam at the southwest end of the lake and proceeds through central Maine to its mouth in the Atlantic Ocean. US Route 201 follows it to Solon Maine, when it diverts away from the river. At Solon, Maine State Road 201A follows it on the west to its terminus at Norridgewock. US Route 2 follows it for a short distance to its intersection with US Route 201, which proceeds along its west bank through Augusta, Maine to Gardiner, Maine. Maine State Road 24 follows the river on the west bank from Gardiner to south of Richmond, where it diverts to the west. State Road 127 follows the east bank for a distance. The river enters the Atlantic near Popham State Park.
Popham Beach State Park
10 Perkins Farm Lane
Phippsburg, ME 04562
(207) 389-1335
https://www.maine.gov/cgi-bin/online/doc/parksearch/details.pl?park_id=22
The Kennebec is navigable by ocean vessels for about forty miles of its length, to the state capital at August.
History
French explorer Samuel de Champlain navigated as far as Bath on his mapping expedition in 1605.
August 13, 1607 - Popham Colony Established
George Popham led a colony to current Maine to found a colony along the Kennebec River as a venture for the Plymouth Company.
George Popham (1550–1608)
The son of Edward Popham and Joan Norton Popham, Edward was native to Somerset, England. Historians know little of his early life until he emerged as leader of the expedition that founded the colony that bore his name. He died in December, 1607, leaving command of the colony to twenty-five year old Raleigh Gilbert.
The Expedition Begins
King James chartered the Plymouth Company at the same time he chartered the Virginia Company that founded Jamestown. The purpose of the companies was to raise private capital through the sale of stock to found the colonies. The charter for the Plymouth Colony included the area between 38° and 45° N. The Virginia Company's charter included the area between 34° and 41° N. The area overlapped and the two companies were to found colonies in the areas that did not overlap. Whichever colony proved successful would receive the overlapping area in between. George Popham led the expedition that departed Plymouth, England on May 31, 1607, on two ships, the Gift of God and the Mary. The expedient included over 100 men and boys. The purpose of the mission included prospecting for precious metals, furs and spices. The men also wanted to prove that the trees of the New World were suitable for building ships. The ships arrived at the mouth of the Kennebec River on August 13, 1607. The men started building a fort they would call Fort St. George almost immediately. They would begin building the ship a few days later.
Excerpted from the Author's Book
Colonial American History Stories - 1215 - 1664

Revolutionary War
Benedict Arnold followed the Kennebec as he began his invasion of Quebec in 1775.
Early August, 1775 - Benedict Arnold Meets with Washington
While Benedict Arnold was at Fort Ticonderoga he had spent time devising a plan to attack Quebec City to provide a diversion for General Schuyler's attack against Montreal. Arnold wanted to follow an old Indian trail up the Kennebec River through Maine and then travel down the Chaudière River to a point across from Quebec. Arnold's intelligence led him to believe that the British had only 600 men to defend the entire Quebec Province. An American thrust to capture Quebec and Montreal might persuade the Canadians to join the American cause. General Schuyler's attack from the south would divert British strength to defend against this threat, leaving Arnold's attack against Quebec almost undefended. Washington studied Arnold's plan and approved them, but he wanted Arnold to wait for General Schuyler's approval before proceeding to implement it.
September 19, 1775 - Benedict Arnold and His Force Depart Newburyport
Benedict Arnold, commanding 1100 men, departed from Newburyport, Massachusetts on September on ships bound for the mouth of the Kennebec River.
Arrival at Kennebec River
The voyage to the mouth of the Kennebec took just twelve hours to complete. Upon arrival, Arnold sent scouts upriver and inspected the bateaux constructed for the expedition. Hastily built, the boats were of poor quality and promised to cause many problems as the force moved up the Kennebec River. Arnold had his men begin construction more of the boats. The force spent the next three days camped at the site, building more bateaux and gathering information.
Bateaux 
The word "bateaux" derives from the French word for "boat." The craft was a flat bottomed boat with pointed ends, usually from twenty-four to fifty feet wide and about eight feet wide, though the size of the boats varied widely due to its proposed use and materials available for construction.  It was possible to mount a small sail on the boat; however the flat bottom made it difficult to navigate. The boats worked well in rivers and streams as the flat bottom provided a shallow draft and provided a suitable platform for cargo. Usually builders used sawn lumber to construct the boats, however builders used whatever resources they had available to build them. The boats found extensive use in colonial times and Revolutionary War soldiers used them extensively to shuttle troops and supplies.
September 23, 1775 - Arnold's Force Reaches Fort Western
Arnold's force departed the mouth of the Kennebec River and traveled upstream to Fort Western, which was about ten miles upriver. Upon arrival, he sent out two teams of scouts Lieutenant Archibald Steele, in command of the pioneer corps, was to blaze a trail along the Kennebec river for the army to follow. The other under Lieutenant Nathaniel Church, was to do surveys of the area to determine the distance Arnold's force would have to travel each day to reach their destination.
Lieutenant Archibald Steele (1740 - October 19, 1832)
The son of William and Rachel Carr Steele. Archibald was native to Drumore, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Historians know little about his early life other than that he was a farmer and had married Jane, last name unknown, three months before the beginning of the Revolutionary War. When word of the fighting reached him, he left his plow in the furrow, took his rifle gathered a half dozen or so local Lancaster lads and traveled to Boston.
Pennsylvania Riflemen
Steele was chosen as First Lieutenant of the company of the men, who were all expert riflemen, using the rifles made in their home Lancaster County. After their arrival near Boston they joined the Pennsylvania Riflemen. At Boston they became part of the front line trenches. Here the company quickly gained a reputation with the British as a company that could fire accurately within six inches from a 300 yard distance.
Mission to Quebec
Steele's company was one of the companies that joined Benedict Arnold's mission to Quebec. The company departed from Cambridge Massachusetts and traveled by ship to the mouth of the Kennebec River. From there the force traveled by bateaux upriver. At their first destination, Fort Western, Arnold appointed Steele to lead the pioneer corps, which was to travel ahead of the army blazing the trail. Arnold allowed Steele choose any eight men from the army for this important task. Steel chose men from his own company. Before the end of this difficult mission two of the men would succumb to the rigors and leave the unit and rejoined Arnold's army. Two others died before the end of the mission.
Difficult Mission
Steele and his men faced a difficult task eking out a route through rough, unmapped terrain through the Kennebec River's course. Traveling by canoe, the men had to portage around rapids and waterfalls and risk drowning in fast currents and in the cold Maine weather. The small company lost all their supplies when the canoe capsized in one difficult stretch of the river. The company finally reached the St. Lawrence River after a cold, hungry, harrowing mission and waited for Arnold's army to catch up with them.
Nathaniel Church (October 22, 1732 - February 5, 1825)
The son of Caleb and Deborah Woodworth Church, Nathaniel was native to Little Compton, Newport County, Rhode Island. Historians know little of his early life. He married Sarah Wood, with whom he would have one child. At the outbreak of hostilities, Church offered his services by joining Colonel Thomas Church's regiment where he served as a first lieutenant. The Church regiment went to Cambridge to join the Siege of Boston in May, 1775. While in service there, Nathaniel Church joined Benedict Arnold's mission to Quebec.
Fort Western
Constructed in 1754 by the British during the French and Indian War, the fort is the United States oldest surviving wooden stockade fort. The fort's main purpose was to serve as a storehouse supporting Fort Halifax, about seventeen miles upriver. Supplies from Boston arrived at the fort on ships about four times a year. After unloading, they traveled upriver by bateaux to Fort Halifax. The fort was never attacked, but staffed by a British garrison until 1767, which was the last time soldiers were stationed in the fort. That was the last military use for the fort, except as a staging area for Benedict Arnold's force in September, 1775. Arnold and his force occupied the fort and surrounding grounds for about a week as they acquired more supplies, gathered information and repaired their boats.
September 28, 1775 - Benedict Arnold's Forces Reach Fort Halifax
Benedict Arnold's expedition reached Fort Halifax on September 28, 1775, where they would camp for several days, repairing boats and making further preparations for their Canada campaign.
Fort Halifax
Construction began on Fort Halifax on July 25, 1754 when British Major General John Winslow arrived at the site with 600 British troops during the early stages of the French and Indian War. The general chose a site at the confluence of the Sebasticook and Kennebec rivers. The fort occupied an old Indian village and was at a major strategic point. The fort would provide protection for the residents of Maine from Indian incursions and serve as a trading post. Winslow named the fort after George Montague-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax, President of the Board of Trade at the time. An 800 foot palisade surrounded the structures inside the fort. Two two-story blockhouses flanked it on the north and south sides and a sentry box occupied another corner of the fort. The buildings inside the stockade included the soldier's barracks and the "fort house." The fort house served as officer's quarters, armory and a supply depot. The fort included several pieces of artillery. Two fierce bulldogs guarded the fort's gates. In addition to this, two more blockhouses stood on a hill overlooking the fort. When the war ended the British government sold the fort to Dr. Silvester Gardiner, who leased it to surveyor Ephraim Ballard. Ballard, who served as a caretaker of the fort, occupied the fort when Arnold's advance team led by Lieutenant Archibald Steele. The fort included a tavern. Steele and his men had arrived at the fort, which by this time was in a deteriorating condition, on September 23. The fort was on the northern fringes of the frontier in 1775.
Further Preparations
Arnold's men camped on the grounds outside the fort while Arnold and the other officers took accommodations with some of the settlers' homes in the area. The soldiers repaired the bateaux and hauled them around the rapids and waterfalls upstream on the Kennebec River.
Excerpted from the Author's Book
1775
https://mossyfeetbooks.blogspot.com/2019/04/time-line-of-american-revolution-1775.html
Logging, Shipbuilding and Ice
A major ice business began in and around Gardiner, Maine in 1814. Farmer's idled by the winter weather cut ice and floated to ice houses where it was packed in sawdust. In the spring, the ice was loaded on ships, packed in sawdust and sent south to markets in the West Indies and the southern United States. The city of Bath, referred to as "The City of Ships" emerged as a major shipbuilding site. North of Augusta the Kennebec served as a transportation medium for logs cut from the forests upstream and floated downstream to Bath, Augusta and other cities along to river to build ships, furniture and provide pulpwood for papermaking.


Short History of Rivers, Streams and Lakes


Book Cover Photo



Description:
Publishing Date to be Announced

Preview Chapter 1
Connecticut River
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Other Books in the Series
A History of the Transportation Revolution
History of the Telephone 
A History of Time
Short History of Libraries, Printing and Language

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Monday, September 23, 2019

Sample Chapter - Short History of Public Parks - Andrew Jackson Downing

Sample Chapter
Short History of Public Parks 
Advocate for Public Parks
Andrew Jackson Downing
Andrew Jackson Downing (October 31, 1815 – July 28, 1852)
The son of Samuel and Eunice Bridge Downing, Andrew was native to Newburgh, New York. Downing as a child worked in his father's nursery business. The work inspired an interest in landscape gardening and architecture.
Author
He undertook to learn botany and landscape gardening, an interest that led to the publication of his first book, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America, published in 1841. He and Caroline DeWint married in 1838. He authored several other books and became a noted authority on landscape gardening and received a commission from President Millard Fillmore to create a landscape design for the National Mall.
National Mall
Downing presented his plan on February 27, 1851. His plan was dramatically different from the geometric design originally proposed in 1791. He wanted to “natural style of landscape gardening." He intended the Mall to be a "public museum of living trees and shrubs." Congress adopted the plan, but only provided funding for a portion of the Mall. Congress eventually eliminated the funding entirely, however eventually it was completed according to his plan. The Mall was renovated again in 1902. Downing developed a landscape style that gardens should fit into the surrounding countryside and blend into the natural habitat.
Architect and Landscape Designer
An architect, Downing's buildings reflected his belief that even the simplest form of architecture should be beautiful, but that usefulness should never be sacrificed for beauty. He popularized the idea of the front porch on private homes. He published designs for twenty-eight residences that included plans for the surrounding gardens, orchards and grounds.
Advocate for Public Parks
After seeing the success of Mount Auburn Cemetery, he said, “Judging from the crowds of people in carriages, and on foot, which I find constantly thronging Green-Wood and Mount Auburn, I think it is plain enough how much our citizens, of all classes, would enjoy public parks.” He became an advocate for public parks, proposing that a portion of central New York be turned into a park, an idea that eventually spawned Central Park. His concept included an area that would have gardens, zoos, concert halls and art galleries. It would also feature a science museum, horticultural societies and a free dairy. He advocated that all cities should have parks for the residents to enjoy, using the landscaped designs of the large, new cemeteries as a model.
Death and Legacy
Downing died while on an excursion with his wife and extended family riding on the steam ship, Henry Clay. The boiler on the ship exploded, sparking a fire that engulfed the ship killing Downing and eighty other passengers. Only some ashes and a few clothing remnants were recovered. He is interred in Cedar Hill Cemetery in Newburgh, New York. Many consider him the father of the American landscape gardening architecture. His work inspired Frederick Law Olmsted as well as beginning the public park movement in the United States.

Batesville Apple Fest 2019

Batesville Apple Fest 2019
I will have my book displayed at the Batesville Apple Fest on September 28 and 29. The event occurs at Liberty Park in Batesville.
Saturday starts at 11 am till 6 pm and Sunday is 11 am – 4 pm.
For more information, visit this link
https://batesvillein.com/event/applefest/

Friday, September 20, 2019

Short History of Libraries, Printing and Language
Indiana Edition
Early Indiana Libraries
December 03, 1806 - Vincennes Library Company Established
The Indiana Territorial Assembly passed an act that established the Vincennes Library Company on December 3, 1806. The Vincennes Library Company formed an important cultural development in the frontier areas of the Indiana Territory. Private citizens contributed to the establishment and maintenance of the library. At the time of its formation, Vincennes had approximately 700 residents, including French and Amerindians. The Library grew; by 1823, the collection included 1023 volumes.
The 1816 Indiana Constitution and Libraries
Prior to Indiana's admission to the Union as a state in December 1816, forty-three delegates assembled at the territorial capital at Corydon to draft a constitution for the state in June 1816. Article IX of this document dealt with schools, libraries and developing a penal code. Section 5 dealt with public libraries. The text is included below:
Sect. 5. The General Assembly, at the time they lay off a new County, shall cause, at least, ten per cent to be reserved out of the proceeds of the sale of town lots, in the seat of Justice of such county, for the use of a public library for such County, and at the same session, they shall incorporate a library company, under such rules and regulations as will best secure its permanence, and extend its benefits.
The delegates to the convention in Corydon that drafted Indiana's first constitution in June, 1816 drafted a resolution on June 18, 1816 that stated:
"That it be recommended to the general assembly of the state of Indiana, to appropriate the money voluntarily given by the citizens of Harrison county to the state, to the purchase of books for a library for the use of the legislature and other officers of government; and that the said general assembly will, from time to time, make such appropriations for the increase of said library, as they may deem necessary."
The capital of the Indiana Territory had moved to Corydon from Vincennes in 1813 in anticipation of achieving statehood. At the time, Corydon was nearer the center of population for the proposed new state. The legislature did nothing further to establish the State Library until they moved to the new capital at Indianapolis in 1825. On February 11, 1825 the legislature created the Indiana State Library, appropriated funds for its establishment and designated the Secretary of State as the State Librarian. In 1841 the legislature established the library as a separate instruction and in 1867 they placed the library in the care of the Indiana Supreme Court. in 1895 they appointed the State Board of Education as the State Library board. This move proved key to its expansion in later years and to the spread of public libraries across the state.

Short History of Libraries, Printing and Language - Indiana Edition

Short History of Libraries, Printing and Language - Indiana Edition




Description:
The Short History of Libraries, Printing and Language tells the story of printing, language, books, writing and libraries. Learn about the development of ink, papyrus, parchment, paper and the story of Johannes Gutenberg’s printing press. This Indiana Edition relates the history of early Indiana libraries, the Indiana State Library and Indiana library laws.

Preview Chapter

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Other Books in the Series

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Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Sample Chapter - Indiana’s Timeless Tales - 1792 - 1794 Early Indiana

Seal of the Northwest Territoy
Sample Chapter
Indiana’s Timeless Tales  - 1792 - 1794  
January 01, 1792 - Early Indiana
In early 1792, the region that would become Indiana consisted of land claimed by the various Indian tribes that lived in the dense forests, swamps and prairies, traveling and using the fishes of the rivers and streams as a valuable food source. 
Settlements
In 1792, only three settlements existed in the future state, Vincennes, Clarksville and Jeffersonville. Cincinnati, located in the southwest corner of the future state of Ohio served as capital of the Northwest Territory. All of these settlements lay along major rivers.
Northwest Territory
Major John Hamtramck commanded Fort Knox I at Vincennes, constructed in 1787, was the westernmost fort of the United States. Arthur St. Clair governor of the Northwest Territory, which included the lands comprising the future states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and a portion of Minnesota.
Settlement
The great cost of waging the Revolutionary War had left the government of the United States with an almost overwhelming debt that the new nation could not pay. The lands of the Northwest Territory beckoned, providing a means of paying the soldiers that fought the war. The United States granted land to Revolutionary War veterans, who began moving into the areas north of the Ohio River granted to them. The land also provided a much needed cash flow medium, as the government could have tracts of land surveyed and sold off to the public. The government established land offices for people to buy this land. These people also moved into their new holdings, many of which were north of the Ohio River. Amerindian tribes that lived in the region saw these new settlers as a threat to their way of life. They also viewed them as a violation Treaty of Fort Stanwix, signed in 1768, that set the border between the whites and the Amerindians at the Ohio River. The United States, with great reluctance, created an army to deal with the threat. However, the government did not give this early army the resources it needed to succeed. This policy led to the disasters of General Harmar in 1790 and St. Clair's Defeat (Battle of the Wabash) in 1791. After the disastrous Battle of the Wabash, the United States set out on a different course to enlarge its settled territory.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Indiana’s Timeless Tales - 1792 - 1794

Indiana’s Timeless Tales  - 1792 - 1794

The Northwest Indian War
Description:
Explore Indiana’s early history using this journal of history stories from the beginning days of the Northwest Territory. A Timeline of Indiana History - 1792 - 1794 relates the time line of events that occurred between St. Clair's Defeat to, and including the Battles of Fort Recovery and Fallen Timbers. Many of these stories of the Northwest Indian War are little known and obscure historical tales that the reader will enjoy learning.
Preview Chapter
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Softbound Price - $10.99

Other Books in the Series
Indiana’s Timeless Tales - Pre-History to 1781
Indiana’s Timeless Tales - 1782 - 1791
Indiana’s Timeless Tales  - 1792 - 1794


Available In Multiple Formats - Ebook And Softbound:
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The Bookshelf
101 N Walnut St,
Batesville, IN 47006

(812) 934-5800
bookshelf101@hotmail.com
Wholesale Pricing Available
For more information, contact:
Mossyfeetbooks@gmail.com
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© 2019 Paul Wonning

Friday, September 13, 2019

Sample Chapter - A History of Napoleon, Indiana - Miles Mendenhall

Miles Mendenhall (1804 - c. 1880)
The son of John and Elizabeth (Betsy) Jennings Mendenhall, Miles was native to South Carolina. Miles married Nancy F Craig, George Craig's daughter, on October 29, 1828. The couple would have six children.  The Mendenhall family migrated to Vevay in Switzerland County sometime around 1815. The family became established as politicians and merchants in the Vevay area.  Census records indicate that the Mendenhall family moved to Napoleon in Jackson Township between 1830 and 1840. He opened a store, known locally as the Elkhorn Store, on Madison Street, Lot 29. The name of the store probably derives from the Elkhorn Association of the Baptist Church. Mendenhall's father in law served as a minister in this church. Mendenhall served as an Associate Judge of Ripley County in 1839 and as Justice of the Peace in Napoleon in 1845. Mendenhall was a major landowner in Napoleon. He acquired his father in law's property after his death, including the property on which the Central House is located on December 16, 1845. The date of his death is unknown; however the last census listing him was around 1880. At that time he was still listed as a merchant. 

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Sample Chapter - Short History of Gardening and Agriculture - Cotton

Cotton
Plant historians believe humans first started growing cotton sometime around 3000 - 4000 BC in India and Africa. During this same period archeologists have found evidence of its cultivation in the Indus River Valley in Pakistan and in Egypt. Cotton did not arrive in Europe until the First Century AD when Arab traders introduced it to Italy and Spain. Christopher Columbus found natives growing the fiber in the Bahamas during his first voyage in 1492.
The Cotton Plant
Cotton belongs to the Malvaceae family.
Family:
Malvaceae - Mallow
Malvaceae (from the genus Mallow, altered from the Greek word. in allusion to the mucilaginous emollient qualities, or mucus canals, of the stems.
The Family Malvaceae is a large family of plants that contains approximately 2300 species in over 200 genera. The family includes okra, cotton and cacao.
General characteristics of the family include alternate, palm shaped leaves. The flowers usually appear as a terminal inflorescence made up by a single flower with five sepals and petals.
Over time humans grew four varieties different varies of cotton
Gossypium arboreum L. - Indus Valley
Gossypium herbaceum L - Arabia and Syria
Gossypium hirsutum Mesoamerica
Gossypium barbadense - South America
Most modern growers across the world grow the species Gossypium hirsutum.
Wild cotton is a perennial shrub that is adaptable to a large variety of climates. Cotton varieties are found in arid, semi-arid and tropical environments. The plants can grow to six feet tall in cultivation. Wild cotton plants can grow up to twenty feet tall. Most cotton species are a shrubby perennial; however most cotton farmers grow the plant as an annual, replanting it every year. The broad, lobed leaves can have from three to five lobes. The flowers can be yellow or white, which darken, usually to a dark pink, by the end of the first day. The flowers mature to form a rounded seed bearing capsule called a "boll." The boll is filled with a fibrous material that surrounds the seeds. The fiber, cotton, is the most valuable part of the boll; however the seed also finds use ground into meal or pressed into oil. The cotton fibers can be white, brown, green or a mixture of these colors.
Cotton Cultivation
Cotton seeds are generally planted in rows from three to five feet apart. In the United States, planting generally begins in March and April, after plowing and harrowing the ground. About eighty days after planting the plants begin to flower, followed by the development of the green, triangular pods called bolls. The bolls mature from sixty to eighty days after this. The ripened boll bursts, allowing the cotton fiber to be visible. The boll has between seven to ten seeds embedded within the cotton fiber.
Cotton Harvesting
Harvesting the cotton historically has been a labor intensive affair. The cotton plant did not mature all the cotton at once. Instead, bolls ripened at intervals, creating a lengthy harvest time. Workers had to return to the fields twice, or more, to harvest all the bolls. If early ripening bolls were left on the plants until all matured the cotton fibers in the earlier ones deteriorated until they were unusable, thus causing a loss of a substantial amount of the crop. Thus, workers had to manually pick the cotton as they drug sacks that were ten feet long through the field behind them. These bags weighed as much as 100 pounds when they were full. Plantation owners expected workers to harvest two of these bags a day. The sharp cotton spikes usually cut the worker's hands as they worked. They had to repeat this process two, three or more times during the growing season, as the cotton plant would continue to produce bolls until winter set in. It was not until the 1940's that an efficient cotton harvester was developed.
Author note: During the period before the Civil War the workers were most likely slaves. After the Civil War, they would most likely have been sharecroppers. The author does not intend to delve deeply into slavery in this book; he merely wants to present the culture of growing and harvesting the cotton, as well as processing the fiber into cloth. The author will have a separate brief article later in this section dealing with slavery and the slave’s role in cotton. 
Cotton Harvesters
Samuel S. Rembert and Jedediah Prescott of Memphis, Tennessee made the first recorded attempt to build a mechanical harvester, receiving a patent for their device in 1850. The device did not become successful. Over the next century numerous attempts were made to invent a mechanical picker. These used a variety of methods, including pneumatic, which used a blast or suction of air, static electricity collectors, strippers and many others. All were unsuccessful. John Rust came up with idea for the first successful cotton picker. He tried a variety of methods, none of which worked. He settled on a spindle type of collector which had a spindle with a smooth surface. He moistened the spindle after he remembered that, as a boy, he picked cotton in the morning, the dew moistened cotton stuck to his fingers. He also noted that his grandmother had moistened her fingers while threading her spinning wheel with cotton to get it to adhere. He and his engineer brother, Donald, built and tested the device, which worked. The International Harvester company picked up on the idea and developed third own version which used a barbed spindle instead of a smooth one like Rust's machine. They developed this machine in 1942, however it was in the early stages of World War II and manufacturers needed most of the steel to produce the tanks, weapons and other materials necessary to wage large scale war. Thus, production of the machine was limited. The Hopson Planting Company near Clarksdale, Mississippi, managed to produce the first crop of cotton planted and harvested entirely by machine in 1944. At war's end, the mechanical cotton picker began taking over the tedious job of picking cotton. Meanwhile, cotton hybridizers began developing cotton varieties that matured their crop all at once instead of over an extended period of time. These varieties also held the bolls further off the ground, making it easier for the harvester to do its job.
Removal of the Seeds
The cotton boll thus consists of seeds and the cotton fiber. The seeds make up about two thirds of the weight of the boll, the remainder being the lighter weight mostly cellulose cotton fibers. Removal of the seed from the fiber in the early days of cotton growing was a problem, as they needed to be removed by hand, a tedious chore.
Spinning the Cotton
Spinning tufts of fiber into thread, or yarn, is a craft that dates back to prehistoric times. The earliest form of spinning fiber into yarn was to roll tufts of fibers down the thigh with the hands. The rolling action twisted the fiber into yarn. The spinner kept adding tufts until they had the desired length. The next step up in spinning technology was to wind the fibers in a loose wad around a long stick called a distaff. The spinner attached a few strands of fiber to a tool called a spindle, which is a short, round, weighted stick. The spinner spins the loose fibers, twisting them, while pulling more fibers from the distaff. As the resulting yarn gains length, the spinner stops to wind the yarn around the spindle, and continues the process until they have a roll of yarn, ready for weaving into cloth. This was a daily chore that women performed, spinning wool, flax fibers, cotton or animal hair into thread. Historians are unsure of when the first spinning wheels appeared, however many think the originated sometime around 1030 in the Arabian world. From there, it spread to China and then to Europe. The spinning wheel was the first step in mechanizing the spinning process. Using the spinning wheel, the spinner starts twisting the wool with the fingers to form a thread by hand. When the spinner has a sufficient length, they thread the yarn through an orifice in the end of the spool, through hooks on a part of the spinning wheel called a flyer. The yarn is then tied securely onto the spool. The spinning wheel has groves that run to another groove on the end of the spool. An arm of the wheel attaches to a foot pedal by means of a crank. When the wool is secured to the spool, the spinner holds the bundle of fiber in the hand and gives the wheel a gentle push, starting it. The spinner can then work the fibers into thread, called carding, which the flyer twists before it wraps around the spool. The spinner keeps the wheel spinning by pumping with the foot while performing this operation. The spinning wheel made the spinning process go much faster than using the distaff and spindle.
Mechanizing the Process
This was the process used to spin cotton, wool, flax and other fibers into yarn for centuries. Lewis Paul and John Wyatt devised the first type of mechanized spinning in 1738. Over time water wheels and then steam engines provided power for the spinning apparatus. Today the process has been fully mechanized, however many crafters still practice the age old art of using the spinning wheel and the spindle and distaff methods.
Weaving 
Weaving threads into cloth is an ancient art that dates back into prehistory. Archeological evidence indicates that it appeared independently in the Middle East, Africa, Asia and the Americas at different times. The simplest form of weaving was the band weaving method. In this process, the weaver simply tied thread to two sticks an equal distance apart. Then she would weave the cords, or thread, between the tied threads, creating narrow bands of cloth. They could wrap these narrow bands around them to form skirts, kilts or other apparel. Or they could sew the bands together to make something larger. Sometime around 6000 BC weavers started building looms. The first ones were simply a wooden frame on which they could tie the thread, or cord, and then weave other threads between them. This was a slow process and the cloth produced this way was quite expensive. Over time they developed the shed rod, which is a stick you could run between the threads fastened on the loom, separating every other thread. They next used a tool called a sword to raise half the cords at the same time. The invention of a device called a heddle road, sometime around 500 BC, allowed the weaving process to go much faster, lowering the price of the finished cloth. People living in different areas of the world used different types of cloth. In South America the natives used cotton and the fur of alpacas and llamas. In Medieval Europe it was mostly wool, linen, nettle cloth and cotton. Asia developed the silk industry, but also wove using various types of plant fiber like abaca and banana. Other improvements to the loom and the weaving process in the Eighteenth Century during the Industrial Revolution led to the construction of large mills in which thread was spun and then woven into cloth.
Cotton Prior to 1793
Prior to 1793 removing the seeds from the cotton boll was a labor intensive process that limited cotton production to about 13,000 bales in the United States. Wars between Britain and France limited Britain's access to French sources of the cloth. Improving spinning and weaving technologies had made cloth production much more efficient. The limiting factor of cotton production was the seed removal process. Slaves working on the plantations in the south could only remove the seeds from about one pound of cotton a day. Eli Whitney changed all of that in 1793 with the invention of his cotton gin.
Eli Whitney (December 8, 1765 – January 8, 1825) 
The son of Eli, Sr. and Elizabeth Fay Whitney, Eli was native to Westborough, Worcester County, Massachusetts. Whitney's mother died when he was eleven years old. At fourteen he started a nail manufacturing business in his father's workshop to supply much needed nails on a machine of his design during the Revolutionary War. He also made ladies' hat pins, the only hat pin maker in the county. His parents, including his new stepmother, opposed his desire to attend college, so did farm work and teaching to acquire the funds to attend Yale, from which he graduated in 1792. He had intended to practice law, but accepted a position as a private tutor in South Carolina.
To Georgia Instead
During his trip to South Carolina he met Catharine Littlefield Greene, the widow of General Nathaniel Greene. Upon his arrival in South Carolina he found that the salary he would receive was only half that promised. Instead of going to South Carolina, Whitney turned the job down and accepted an offer from Mrs. Greene to visit her plantation in Georgia. During his stay the plantation manager, engaged to Mrs. Greene, expressed his disgust at the difficulty of removing seed from cotton. Mrs. Greene invited him to present the problem to her guest, Eli Whitney, telling him that Eli "could make anything."
The Cotton Gin
Whitney observed slaves removing the seed from the cotton boll, paying particular interest in their hand movements while removing the seeds. In a few hours he built a machine that duplicated those movements. His machine dramatically increased the amount of cotton a slave could process in a day.
Patent Disputes
Unfortunately for Whitney, word about his revolutionary machine spread across the Georgia countryside like wildfire. Someone broke into his workshop and copied his design before he could file papers for a patent. When he did receive it, he spent the money he made on the machine battling patent infringements, thus instead of making him wealthy, the legal battles left him almost bankrupt.
Interchangeable Parts
Whitney turned his attention to making muskets. He had conceived the idea of using interchangeable parts to manufacture muskets. Many attribute the Whitney with the invention of interchangeable parts, however this idea was older that Whitney, having first been developed much earlier. Whitney developed and promoted the concept during his work on muskets, an endeavor he began in 1798. Until Whitney, all guns were made by hand by skilled gunsmiths. Thus, each part of every gun was unique and there was no standardization of parts. Parts from one gun would not fit another. Whitney studied the gun making process, and then designed a gun to suit his concept. He made a template for each part and used the template to make the parts. Thus, each gun after assembly was identical to another using his process. The process sped up the manufacturing process. He promoted the idea to other manufacturers and in the process changed the face of manufacturing in the United States.
Marriage
In 1817 Whitney married Henrietta Edwards. The couple would have four children.
Death
Whitney passed away of prostrate cancer in 1825. During the course of his illness he invented a number of devices to help ease the pain of his disease. He is interred at New Haven's historic Grove Street Cemetery.
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Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Time Line of the American Revolution - 1776


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Colonial American History Stories - 1215 - 1664
Colonial American History Stories - 1665 - 1753
Colonial American History Stories - 1753 - 1763
Colonial American History Stories - 1763 - 1769
Colonial American History Stories - 1770 - 1774
Time Line of the American Revolution - 1775


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Preview Chapter - Time Line of the American Revolution - 1776 - South Carolina General Assembly Establishes Court of Admiralty

Time Line of the American Revolution - 1776
Time Line of the American Revolution - 1776
A Journal of the War of Independence
Book 2
South Carolina General Assembly Establishes Court of Admiralty
April 11, 1776 - South Carolina General Assembly Establishes Court of Admiralty
On April 11, 1776 the South Carolina Assembly passed a bill that established a Court of Admiralty to "have jurisdiction of all cases of the capture of ships and other vessels of the inhabitants of Great Britain, Ireland, British West Indies, Nova Scotia, East and West Florida; to establish trial by jury, in the Court of Admiralty, in cases of capture; and for the other purposes therein mentioned."
Admiralty Court
An admiralty court has jurisdiction over all maritime contracts, torts, injuries, and offenses. One duty of the admiralty court was to decide if a prize taken in wartime by a privateer was a legal prize, under the terms of the letter of marque . During the Revolutionary War most admiralty courts did not allow an appeal on a judgment to the Continental Congress. Of the twelve admiralty courts established, only Maryland and New Hampshire allowed an appeal to Congress. In the remainder a decision by a judge was final.

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Thursday, September 5, 2019

Sample Chapter - Gardener’s Guide to Gardening Tools - Garden Trowels

Gardener’s Guide to Gardening Tools
Garden Trowels
A garden trowel is an indispensable tool for every gardener. All gardeners should have one trowel and it is best to have several for different purposes. The word trowel derives from the Latin word "truella", which means "small ladle". A trowel can serve as a ladle but that is really just one use for a trowel. Indeed, a trowel is the most used tool in the gardener’s toolbox so it is important to get a good one. Nothing is as aggravating as a poor quality trowel that bends when you try to dig. Additionally, a poorly designed handle tires the hand and causes blisters.
There is an incredible variety of hand trowels available to the modern gardener. The gardener will find wood handle trowels and plastic composite trowels. Also available are aluminum and stainless steel trowels. New ergonomic designs make gardening easier on the hands. They also make it more accessible to those with repetitive stress injury and arthritis. These new designs include gel filled handles and curved designs that are more natural for the hand to hold while using them.
Finding a good garden hand trowel from this vast selection of trowels is a bit confusing. So take your time and then choose the garden hand trowel best suited for your needs.
Ergonomic Trowels
Ergonomic trowels use a new design to provide ergonomic ease of use. Some of the new ergonomic trowels help gardeners with arthritis continue their garden activities. These tools also help gardeners without those disorders to garden with less stress to their hands and wrists.
The ergonomic design of the trowel's handle allows the gardener to use a more natural position while working. A cushioned grip helps prevent blisters. These trowels are usually composed of an alloy consisting of cast aluminum and magnesium so they are light and strong. The blade’s design allows you to punch into the soil easily and lift a manageable load of soil. The curved shapes provide a more balanced transfer of energy from the hand and wrist to the trowel. This reduces hand fatigue common when using a hand garden trowel.
Gel Ergonomic Trowels
Gel ergonomic trowels provide a cushioned grip that prevent blisters and make working in the garden more fun. Gardeners abuse their hands a lot with all that digging, pruning and chopping. Any tool which helps reduce that abuse is a welcome addition to any gardener's tool chest. A gel grip trowel helps your hands by incorporating a cushioned, gel filled handle into the garden trowel's design.
This gel flexes and provides cushioning to hard-working fingers while digging. Some of these feature a serrated edge to open bags of fertilizer or other gardening material and to cut roots while digging. Others have stainless steel blades.
Stainless Steel Trowels
Stainless steel is an ideal component to use to make trowels. It is strong, durable and resists rust. They also polish to a high sheen so they are attractive as well. The shiny metal is easy to spot if the gardener misplaced the tool while pursuing other projects in the garden. Stainless steel trowels usually have wood handles. These trowels are prone to rusting over time.
Nursery Trowels
The small, lightweight nursery trowel works well in tight spaces. The long handle of the nursery trowel allows you to reach into tight spots and the small, light blade makes it an ideal trowel for women to use.
Soil Scoop Trowels
A soil scoop is a specialized trowel that will certainly find many uses in and around the garden. The scoop is great for those who mix their own potting soil, as it will allow you to scoop vermiculate, peat moss and other soil components. The scoop will also work great to pot up plants and fill bedding packs for small transplants. Using the scoop, you can pick up potting soil from the bag or bin and place it where you want it. This help to fill in around roots under and around stems and leaves.
A soil scoop will work better than a trowel to fill in soil around newly transplanted shrubs and flowers in the garden. It can also scoop fertilizer and other bulk garden products into spreaders. Specialized bonsai soil scoops work great to fill soil in and around the small pots used in bonsai. Their unique shape fits in under the leaves and branches of these miniature trees better than a trowel. The right soil scoop fills a void left by the hand trowel. Standard trowels are great for digging and weeding. However, their shape is usually not suitable for scooping soil for potting and bonsai needs.
Aluminum Trowel
Aluminum trowels are strong, durable and lightweight. Aluminum resists corrosion, so if you accidentally leave your trowel out in the rain it will not rust. Since aluminum trowels are cast in one piece, the blade will not separate from the handle, as it will with some other types of trowels. Aluminum is a soft metal and it will not hold a sharp edge as a steel trowel will. Since it is not a strong as steel, aluminum garden trowels may bend easier if you are digging in heavy soil. The blades of an aluminum trowel may also chip if you strike a rock while digging. Aluminum trowels usually have a plastic grip on the handle to cushion your hand. Rubberized grips are easier on the hand than the polypropylene ones.
Wood Handle Trowels
The traditional handle for a garden trowel has been wood. Wood, usually a hardwood like ash or hickory, is the traditional choice for a handle for a trowel. Attractive, strong and durable many manufacturers still make trowels with wood handles. However, it tends to split, especially if you accidentally leave the trowel out in the weather.
Trowel Maintenance
Protect the trowel from rust with a coating of old motor oil or cooking oil when not in use. A good spray with aerosol cooking oil before using will make the trowel easier to clean when finished with it. Alternatively, fill a bucket with sand and saturate it with oil. Use this to dip your hand tools in to clean them and add a protective sheen of oil to help prevent rust. Sometimes it is helpful to file or grind the edges of steel trowels to a sharp edge to make it easier to cut into soil. Paint the handles or blades a bright orange or yellow to make them more visible. This makes it less likely to lose the trowel or leave it out in the weather.
The wide variety of trowels on the market can intimidate even the most seasoned gardener. Trowels come in different shapes, sizes, materials and colors. Picking the right type of trowel is easier if the gardener is aware of the many different types available and the uses of each.

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Wednesday, September 4, 2019

A Timeline of Indiana History - 1795 - 1800




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Publication Date to Be Determined


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Other Books in the Series
Indiana’s Timeless Tales - Pre-History to 1781
Indiana’s Timeless Tales - 1782 - 1791
A Timeline of Indiana History - 1792 - 1794
A Timeline of Indiana History - 1795 - 1800

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