Saturday, August 1, 2020

Sample Chapter - May 07, 1800 - A Timeline of Indiana History - 1795 - 1800 - Bill to Divide Northwest Territory - Creates Indiana Territory

Sample Chapter 
May 07, 1800 - Bill to Divide Northwest Territory - Creates Indiana Territory
Congress organized the Northwest Territory by passing the Ordinance of 1787. Six states eventually arose from this huge expanse of land, including Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and a portion of Minnesota. By 1800 the easternmost portion of the region had gained enough population to begin the statehood process. The Act split the western portion of the Northwest Territory off, forming the Indiana Territory in the process. Ohio contained the remnants of the Northwest Territory until it gained statehood on March 1, 1803. 
The Indiana Territory
The capitol of the Indiana Territory would be located at Vincennes. President John Adams appointed William Henry Harrison as the governor over the vast, 259,824 square mile expanse. Other Territorial officials included: John Gibson, secretary, and judges William Clarke, Henry Vanderburgh, and John Griffin. Governor Harrison had the authority to appoint all local and territorial. The Act used the Greenville Treaty Line as the eastern boundary of the new territory. The total white population of the Indiana Territory at the time of its inception was about 5,641. The voting franchise included only white males twenty-one years old and over who owned at least 50 acres of land. It would take fifteen years for the population to reach the required 60,000 needed for Indiana to achieve statehood.


Tuesday, July 28, 2020

Sample Chapter - Clifty Falls Indiana State Park - General Geology Clifty Falls State Park

Sample Chapter
General Geology Clifty Falls State Park
The area of Clifty Falls State Park lies on an area geologists call the Cincinnati Arch. This geological formation stretches between the Illinois Basin, in south central Illinois, and the Appalachian Basin, which slants southwest through eastern Virginia. The rock layers in the area of the park slant towards the west with the younger rock faces to the west and the older to the east. The exposed rock is mostly composed of a substance geologists call Laurel Dolomite. This rock is more resistant to erosion that the rocks on either side of the park, thus it formed a ridge through the park and nearby Madison. This ridge created a drainage divide. Precipitation falling east of this divide flows eastward and that falling west of the divide fell west. Rains that fell in the Madison area cascaded over the harder Dolomite, forming waterfalls and cascades that tumbled into the deeper Ohio River. The falls at Clifty Falls originally fell directly into the river, however over the centuries the running water carved the current canyon that runs from the falls to the Ohio River, about 2 miles to the south. The falls is at an elevation of 658 feet above sea level and the Ohio River is at 432 feet above sea level, so the stream bed is about 226 feet below the canyon rim near the river.  Since the rock on both sides of the canyon slants west, rainwater on the east percolates down through the rock on the eastern canyon wall, forming springs that freeze into the beautiful frozen waterfalls on the east face of the canyon. This percolating water creates openings in the rock that over many years break it apart, causing the large boulders seen at the canyons base. The water on the western rim falls to the west, thus the western face is more stable as the water does not percolate through it.
© 2020 Paul Wonning
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Saturday, July 25, 2020

Sample Chapter - Short Histories of Traditional Crafts - Spinning and Weaving History

Sample Chapter 
Spinning and Weaving History


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Spinning tufts of fiber into thread, or yarn, is a craft that dates back to prehistoric times. The earliest form of spinning fiber into yarn was to roll tufts of fibers down the thigh with the hands. The rolling action twisted the fiber into yarn. The spinner kept adding tufts until they had the desired length. The next step up in spinning technology was to wind the fibers in a loose wad around a long stick called a distaff. The spinner attached a few strands of fiber to a tool called a spindle, which is a short, round, weighted stick. The spinner spins the loose fibers, twisting them, while pulling more fibers from the distaff. As the resulting yarn gains length, the spinner stops to wind the yarn around the spindle, and continues the process until they have a roll of yarn, ready for weaving into cloth. This was a daily chore that women performed, spinning wool, flax fibers, cotton or animal hair into thread. Historians are unsure of when the first spinning wheels appeared, however many think the originated sometime around 1030 in the Arabian world. From there, it spread to China and then to Europe. The spinning wheel was the first step in mechanizing the spinning process. Using the spinning wheel, the spinner starts twisting the wool with the fingers to form a thread by hand. When the spinner has a sufficient length, they thread the yarn through an orifice in the end of the spool, through hooks on a part of the spinning wheel called a flyer. The yarn is then tied securely onto the spool. The spinning wheel has groves that run to another groove on the end of the spool. An arm of the wheel attaches to a foot pedal by means of a crank. When the wool is secured to the spool, the spinner holds the bundle of fiber in the hand and gives the wheel a gentle push, starting it. The spinner can then work the fibers into thread, called carding, which the flyer twists before it wraps around the spool. The spinner keeps the wheel spinning by pumping with the foot while performing this operation. The spinning wheel made the spinning process go much faster than using the distaff and spindle.

Mechanizing the Process

This was the process used to spin cotton, wool, flax and other fibers into yarn for centuries. Lewis Paul and John Wyatt devised the first type of mechanized spinning in 1738. Over time water wheels and then steam engines provided power for the spinning apparatus. Today the process has been fully mechanized, however many crafters still practice the age old art of using the spinning wheel and the spindle and distaff methods.
Weaving 
Weaving threads into cloth is an ancient art that dates back into prehistory. Archeological evidence indicates that it appeared independently in the Middle East, Africa, Asia and the Americas at different times. The simplest form of weaving was the band weaving method. In this process, the weaver simply tied thread to two sticks an equal distance apart. Then she would weave the cords, or thread, between the tied threads, creating narrow bands of cloth. They could wrap these narrow bands around them to form skirts, kilts or other apparel. Or they could sew the bands together to make something larger. Sometime around 6000 BC weavers started building looms. The first ones were simply a wooden frame on which they could tie the thread, or cord, and then weave other threads between them. This was a slow process and the cloth produced this way was quite expensive. Over time they developed the shed rod, which is a stick you could run between the threads fastened on the loom, separating every other thread. They next used a tool called a sword to raise half the cords at the same time. The invention of a device called a heddle road, sometime around 500 BC, allowed the weaving process to go much faster, lowering the price of the finished cloth. People living in different areas of the world used different types of cloth. In South America the natives used cotton and the fur of alpacas and llamas. In Medieval Europe it was mostly wool, linen, nettle cloth and cotton. Asia developed the silk industry, but also wove using various types of plant fiber like abaca and banana. Other improvements to the loom and the weaving process in the Eighteenth Century during the Industrial Revolution led to the construction of large mills in which thread was spun and then woven into cloth.
© 2020 Paul Wonning

Tuesday, July 21, 2020

Indiana State Park Travel Guide Series Box Set

Indiana State Park Travel Guide Series Box Set
McCormick's Creek State Park
Turkey Run Indiana State Park
Clifty Falls Indiana State Park
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Clifty Falls Indiana State Park

Clifty Falls Indiana State Park
Description:
Clifty Falls State Park offers visitors a premier hiking experience as well as wonderful camping opportunities. This guide includes the history of the park as well as historical and tourism information for Madison and Jefferson County, Indiana. 
Sample Chapter


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Other Books in the Series
McCormick's Creek State Park
Turkey Run Indiana State Park
Clifty Falls Indiana State Park
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