Wednesday, February 21, 2018

Sample Chapter - Gardeners Guide to Growing to the Carrot - Garden Culture and Uses - Carrots

Garden Culture and Uses - Carrots

Carrots
Carrots
Carrots require a rich, deep soil that has been well prepared. Plant the seed directly in garden. The seed will germinate in ten days to three weeks, depending upon soil and weather conditions. Sow the seed thinly in rows. After the seedlings are up and about an inch high, thin to about one to two inches apart.

Carrot Seedlings
Carrot Seedlings
Gardeners Guide to Growing to the Carrot
Gardeners Guide to Growing to the Carrot
Carrots may be planted in late March in southern Indiana, with biweekly sowings until mid July to ensure a constant crop. To harvest, just pull on the leaves firmly. If the soil is hard, you may have to dig the roots with a trowel. Snap off the leaves and toss on the compost pile. Wash the roots and you are ready for fresh carrots.
Planting Carrots
Prepare the soil well before planting carrots. Dig the bed well and remove any stones, sticks and other debris. Work the surface to a fine texture. Water the soil deep before planting. Using a trowel or stick, make a shallow furrow in the soil and drop the seeds at one half inch intervals in the furrow. Cover the seed with a thin layer of fine soil. Water the bed again, using a fine mist to avoid dislodging the seed. It is important to keep the soil moist during germination. If the soil dries out, the seed probably will not germinate, especially during hot weather. Some growers cover the beds with spun bond fiber that they remove after germination. The seed will take from ten days to three weeks to germinate. 
Gardeners may plant small crops of carrots two weeks apart to ensure a continuous supply. By mid to late summer, plant a larger crop to over winter under a layer of leaves for winter or early spring harvest. 
The first crops may be planted in early spring as much as six weeks before frost. The seed will take longer to germinate in the colder ground. But spring conditions are usually more favorable for germination. Rain is frequent and carrots do prefer cooler temperatures. 
Carrot seed does not transplant well, so plant the seeds in the place they will grow. The author has had success planting mid summer carrots in recycled toilet paper tube pots. Sow the seeds in the pots in the greenhouse, or under lights. Plant the seedlings in the garden after the seedlings begin showing the first true leaves. The seedlings should be about two inches tall, or slightly shorter, when transplanted. Since the roots are not disturbed during transplanting, the roots don't usually fork or bend.

Tuesday, February 20, 2018

Sample Chapter - October 31, 1753- Washington Sent on Mission to Assess French Strength in Ohio Valley - Colonial American History Stories - 1753 – 1763

Colonial American History Stories - 1753 – 1763
October 31, 1753- Washington Sent on Mission to Assess French Strength in Ohio Valley
The rivalry between the French and English in North America in the years before the French and Indian War created the opportunity for a youthful George Washington to gain experience in military matters. Both the French and the English had claimed the vast Ohio River Valley region.
Dinwiddie Becomes Concerned
The French had established colonies along the St. Lawrence River in Canada and at the mouth of the Mississippi River in Louisiana. They desired the Ohio River Valley region so they could connect the two regions by water. In 1749, the French had sent Pierre-Joseph Celeron de Blainville on the Lead Plate Expedition. Blainville had buried lead or copper plates at the mouths of all the major rivers they encountered on their route down the Allegheny, Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. By the early 1750, the French began building a string of forts in the region to establish control. The forts were, in order of their establishment, Fort Presque Isle, Fort Leboef and Fort Machault along the Allegheny River. Their actions created friction with the British. Royal charters granted to Virginia and other colonies had extended their claims from the eastern seaboard to the Pacific Ocean. Virginia Governor Robert Dinwiddie had extensive real estate holdings in the Ohio River Valley region. French and British fur traders quarreled over trading rights with the natives. The Ohio Company, to which George Washington had ties, had also begun exploring the area. The conflicting claims led to increasing tensions between the two powerful nations.
Washington Given an Important Mission
Dinwiddie had sent one mission to the region that fell 150 miles short of reaching their goal of Fort Le Boeuf in northwest Pennsylvania. He had heard of George Washington and suspected he might be up to the task of completing the arduous mission. He contacted Washington and instructed him to go to Willis Creek (Maryland), where the Ohio Company maintained a supply warehouse. He was to hire Christopher Gist to use as a guide and then procure porters to carry the goods. Dinwiddie had written a letter to the French commander of Fort Le Boeuf, demanding that the French halt their incursions into the area. Washington's orders further stated that, after he had acquired supplies and porters, he was to proceed to Logstown, an Amerindian settlement along the Ohio River to hold council with the natives living there.
Washington traveled to Willis Creek as instructed and gathered his men and supplies. On October 31, 1753, George Washington set off on his first important military mission.

Monday, February 19, 2018

Sample Chapter - Short Indiana Road Trips - Volume 2 - Hillforest Historic Mansion

Hillforest Historic Mansion

Hillforest Historic Mansion
Hillforest Historic Mansion
Hillforest sits on a bluff overlooking the Ohio River. Designed by architect Isaiah Rogers and constructed by industrialist and financier Thomas Gaff in 1855, Hillforest Mansion sits astride a hill that affords a majestic view of the Ohio River.
Short Indiana Road Trips - Volume 2
Short Indiana Road Trips - Volume 2
Thomas Gaff (July 8, 1808 - April 25, 1884)
The son of James and Margaret Wilson Gaff, Thomas was native to Edinburgh, Scotland. His father, a paper maker, moved the family to Springfield, New Jersey. Gaff received his education in private schools and learned papermaking from his father. An uncle, Charles Wilson, taught him the distilling business. Thomas and his brother James founded a distillery in Philadelphia. In 1843, the brothers moved their operation to Aurora, Indiana. Their distillery, called the T & J.W. Gaff & Company Distillery, produced bourbon, rye, and Thistle Dew Scotch whiskey. The business thrived and their business empire expanded to include the Crescent Brewing Company, a Nevada silver mine, farming operations and many others. The Gaffs also owned a fleet of steamboats that they used to transport their various products on the rivers.
Isaiah Rogers (August 17, 1800 – April 13, 1869)
The son of Isaac and Hannah Ford Rogers, Isaiah was native to Marshfield, Massachusetts. A student of famed Massachusetts architect Solomon Willard, Isaiah became a leading architect in the United States. He designed structures in Mobile, Alabama, Boston, New York City, Louisville, Kentucky, and Cincinnati, Ohio. His designs included Boston's Tremont House, New York's Astor House and the Burnett House in Cincinnati.
Hillforest Historic Mansion
Hillforest - Overlooking Aurora Indiana
Hillforest - Overlooking Aurora Indiana
Situated on ten acres of land overlooking the Ohio River, Gaff lived in the home until his death in 1884. The Gaff family retained ownership of the home until furniture manufacturer Will Stark purchased the home in 1924. The local chapter of the Veterans of Foreign Wars owned the home, using it as a meeting place, until a group of local citizens purchased the home in 1955. Organizing as the Hillforest Historical Foundation, the group restored the home and opened it for public tours in 1956. The National Historic Landmark Program listed it as a National Historic Landmark in 1992. The restored home is open for tours from April 1 until December 30. The home was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1992.

Hillforest Historic Mansion
213 Fifth St
Aurora, Indiana
812-926-0087

Friday, February 16, 2018

Preview Chapter - Historic Travel Guide to Ripley County - The King Steam Car


 The King Steam Car
 The King Steam Car - Osgood Historical Museum



The Ripley County Historic Marker
King Steam Car - Sycamore Street
Inscription:
Built in Osgood in 1897 by Henry P. King and his helper James Humphrey. Mr. King owned the Osgood Foundry and Machine Shop. The King Steam Car featured rear drum brakes and pinion steering, the only car built in Ripley County. The car was registered with the State of Indiana in 1904. Mr. King purchased the four lots here in 1877 and built the Mansford Roof style home in 1885.
Brief History by the Author:
Historic Travel Guide to Ripley County
Historic Travel Guide to Ripley County
 Osgood resident Henry P. King designed and built the steam powered car on display in the Osgood Museum. Mr. King and his brother in law brother-in-law, James Humphrey, owned the Osgood Machine and Foundry Shop in Osgood. They made most of the metal parts. He had the Huber Buggy Company in Cincinnati build the body and ship it to Osgood in 1897. Mr. King had the car running by 1898 and registered it with the State of Indiana in 1904. The car became the first automobile driven in Southeastern Indiana. The water for the car was stored in a tank under the seat. A tank for kerosene in the trunk and a toolbox for the tools needed to keep the car running is in also in the trunk. The rear drum brakes and pinion steering were among some of the innovative features that would not regularly appear on automobile until later years. According to local lore, King's family lived in Benham, Indiana and King needed to car to visit them. He used the car until the steering gear broke and he needed a monkey wrench to steer the car home. The car survived several owners and a brush with a salvage company. After King died, someone sold the car to a salvage yard. Osgood resident Henry Humphrey rescued the car from the junk yard and stored it. The car appeared in the 1956 Osgood Centennial Parade and again in Columbus Indiana parade in 1962 when Vice President Richard Nixon made a visited Indiana. Paul Sholle purchased the car and restored it in 1984. The Osgood Historical Museum has the car on display, apparently still in working condition.

Available in multiple ebook formats and softbound
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(812) 663-0021

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Thursday, February 15, 2018

Sample Chapter - Dark Fantasy Novel - Gatherer of Souls

Sample Chapter - Dark Fantasy Novel - Gatherer of Souls
Chapter One

Kelley Dawes had no inkling of the terror that would soon explode upon her contented world. It all began in a most exciting way, the day she started her new job and made a new friend.
Kelley walked down the hallway and stopped in front of the door at which the receptionist had indicated. The gold plaque on the door indicated it was the right office.  Kelly gave a light knock and entered when a voice from within said, “Come on in.”
She pushed the door open.
Her new boss, Jason Bell, greeted her with a smile,“ Good morning, Kelley, how are you this morning?”
“Fine,” said Kelley, with a nervous tinge to her voice. “I am ready to start, Mr. Bell.”
“Good, I think you’ll like working here, Ms. Dawes.” Jason replied as he reached across his desk and punched a button on his phone.
“Yes, Mr. Bell,” a feminine voice answered.
“Betsy, Kelley Dawes is in here. She is ready to start. Can you come in and show her to her cubicle and get her started?”
“Sure, Mr. Bell, I’ll be right in.”
A moment later, the door opened and a dark haired young lady stepped inside.
“This is Kelley Dawes, Betsy. Kelley, this is my administrative assistant Betsy Neyer.”
The young ladies smiled at each other as Jason Bell continued, “Betsy, show Kelley to her office and help her get started.”
“Okay, Mr. Bell. Come on Kelley, just follow me.”
The two young women left the office and began walking down the hall, which soon opened into a large room with a dozen or so cubicles. Overhead fluorescent lights lit it.  The place had the normal office smells of electronic equipment and paper.
“You’ll be working in this cubicle right here,” said Betsy, indicating a small office right across from the hall.
Kelley went in and sat down at her new desk, powered up the computer and watched as it booted up.
“Where are you from?” asked Betsy as they waited for the computer to connect to the network.
“Centertown. It’s down south.”
“I know where it is. I am from Turkeyfoot.”
“Turkeyfoot, why that is just a few miles from Centertown. We played you guys in basketball.”
“So we are neighbors,” Betsy said with a smile. “Are you living here in Indianapolis?”
“Yes, I have an apartment here on the south side on Madison Avenue. It's not too far from the office.”
“Really? I live nearby, in an apartment on Stop 11. We are just a few minutes from each other.”
By now, the computer was ready, and Betsy spent the next two hours showing Betsy her new duties. When Kelley looked like she could continue, Betsy said, “I have a report to file for Mr. Bell. I will go do that and come back. It will take me about an hour.”
“Okay, I think I will be fine here awhile.”
“If you have any questions, just call me. All you have to do is dial my extension, which is 002.”
Betsy walked away, while Kelley pecked at her computer. She studied the files before here and completing the tasks Betsy told her to do.
Time passed quickly, and before Kelley knew it, Betsy was standing by her desk, studying her work.
“That is great, Kelley. It looks like you are doing just fine.”
Kelley looked up, and brushed her black hair back behind her shoulders.
“I think I understand what I am doing.”
“Say, it is almost lunchtime. What do you say we do lunch? When we come back and I will show you the rest of your duties?”
Kelley stood up and powered the machine down as she answered, “That sounds wonderful, I am famished.”
“How do you like living in the city so far,” asked Betsy as the two walked down the hall and out into the street.
“I haven’t been here long,” said Kelley. “My brother lives up here and helped me find an apartment. I really have not had time to enjoy the city much yet. I just moved and got most of my stuff unpacked. I am still exploring this part of town, trying to find the right stores and restaurants.”
“Tell you what,” said Betsy. “I am not doing anything tonight. How about we go shopping and I can show you around town.”
“That sounds great,” said Kelley, smiling. “Thank you.”

Over the next several weeks, the two young women spent a great deal of time together. They explored the downtown nightspots of Indianapolis and shopped.
A few weeks later, in early October, the hint of falling autumn leaves scented the air. The two were enjoying a beer at a popular downtown tavern, basking in the golden sun from their table on the sidewalk. They watched as traffic and passersby went by. The sun glinted off the Artsgarden that spanned Washington Street nearby.
“Gosh, Betsy, this is great. Don’t you miss Turkeyfoot, though?”
“Sometimes,” she said. “This city is wonderful, but sometimes I get tired of it. It is so busy all the time, and the traffic is crazy.”
“Maybe you and I should find a place in a small town nearby to rent. We could save some money by renting one place.”
“That sounds like fun,” said Betsy. “It would have to be close, though.”
“Lets pick up some beer and go to my apartment and spend some time searching the internet and see what we can find.”
“Okay, let’s,” said Betsy. She drained her mug, finished the last crumbs of the pie on her plate and the two left.
Hours later, Betsy pointed at the computer screen as she observed, “That looks promising.”
“Yes, it is in Amackville, just an hour east on the interstate. It looks like an old farmhouse. I’ll call the owner and see how much they want for it.”
She dialed her phone, listened to it ring. A brief conversation followed. She held her hand over the phone and leaned across to Betsy and whispered in excitement, “They want less for a whole house than I pay for my apartment alone.”
She told Kelley the amount.
“We can ride in together most days. Even with the extra gas, we would still save money.”
“That, and live in a neat old house.”
“Set up an appointment for this Saturday for us to look at it.”
Kelley set up the appointment, her face lit by a smile.
“We can meet with him at 11:00 Saturday morning.”
“Great. Say, there is a Comforsuite Hotel there, just off the interstate. What say we make a weekend of it? We can look at the house and decide if we want it while we explore the town. We can come back Sunday.”
"That sounds wonderful.”
Kelley surfed to the chain’s website and made the necessary reservations.

Saturday morning found them at the house, looking at it from the driveway with appraising eyes.
“The garage isn’t attached, but it is a two car so there is room for both our cars.”
“It has a great big yard, and there is a huge tree in the back yard.”
Another car pulled up behind them, and they got out of the car. A man got out, walked towards them and held out his hand.
“Good morning, ladies,” he said as he shook Betsy’s hand.
“I am Betsy Neyer,” she said, “and this,” she glanced at Kelley, “is Kelley Dawes.”
“Good to meet you both,” he said. “My name is Ralph Wittbach, but you can just call me Buck,”
He put his hands behind his back as he asked, “I just finished restoring it a few weeks back. Are you two ready to look at the house?”
Betsy nodded, and the man took out his keys and walked up the stone steps that led to the front door. The two women followed. He opened the door and they stepped inside.
“Wow,” Kelley gushed as she glanced around the room. Buck had done a masterful job of restoring the old home. The scent of fresh paint still clung to the air and new cabinets gleamed in the kitchen. An oak staircase rose majestically in the center of the foyer. Huge windows allowed the golden autumn sun to fill the room.
“The windows are all new, and I insulated it before putting the siding back on,” informed Buck. “It’s not bad at all to heat. In addition, there is a wood burning stove, if you choose to use it, which cuts back on the heating bills quite a bit. I can supply the wood if you want it.”
They toured the rest of the house, and both loved it. It was charming, and still smelled of fresh paint and carpet.
When they finished, Betsy said, “We are staying in town this weekend at the Comfort Suite. Can we call you tomorrow morning to let you know what we decide?”
“Sure,” said Buck. “I am not busy tomorrow. I can meet you here again in the morning or afternoon, whichever you settle on.”
“That sounds great,” said Kelley. “I will call you in the morning to let you know what we decide.”

“There is a bowling alley and a theatre downtown,” said Kelley as she tipped a cold glass of beer to her lips.
“I saw a BigMart at the last exit, about ten minutes back on the interstate. The town looks clean and there are lots of places to eat.”
“And it is only about fifty five minutes from the office.”
“It takes thirty minutes to get there from my apartment.”
“We can take the interstate to the Acton exit and go in on Southport, avoiding some of the worst traffic. Heck Bets, I like it.”
Betsy smiled as she eyed the chicken dinner the waitress placed in front of her.
“So do I. I think we should take it, Bets.”
“So do I. I will call Buck in the morning with our decision.”

Bacon, coffee, sausage filled the restaurant with their comforting blend of aromas. The hostess seated Betsy and Kelley at a table that overlooked the busy highway.
“I’ll have a coffee,” said Kelley. “Cream and sugar also, please.”
“Me, too,” Betsy said. She picked up a menu and perused the selections.
“What do you think, Kel? Do you want to rent the house?”
“I would like to,” she said. “The lease would be for a year. If we hate it that much, we can surely last that long.”
Betsy took a sip of her coffee, saying with satisfaction, “My, that is delicious.
She looked up at her friend and said, “I think it will be fun, Kel.”
Kelley placed her menu back down and gave her order to the waitress who stood; pad in hand, by their table. Then she looked at Betsy. “Then I will call Buck. We can meet him there this afternoon, sign the lease and go back to the city.”
She pulled out her cell phone, punched the number and after a brief pause, said, “Yes, Buck? It’s Kelley. Say, we would like to take the house. Can we meet you there later and sign the lease? We can? Okay, see you later.”
She returned the phone to her purse, saying, “He will be there at 12:30.”
“Cool,” said Betsy. “Enough time to eat our breakfast and go for a walk in that park we saw yesterday.”
“That was nice, Bets. We have everything here we want, and we are close enough to the city to walk there to enjoy it.”
By then their orders arrived and the two young women dived into their breakfasts.

Betsy took the sheaf of papers from Kelley and scribbled her signature below Kelley’s name. Then she handed the papers to Buck, who took them and placed them in a yellow envelope.
Kelley glanced at him and asked, “When can we move in?”
Buck smiled as he answered, “The lease runs from November 1 to October 31 next year. However, the house is empty now. You can move in any time you like. Here are the keys.”
He slid six keys across the Formica counter top towards Betsy.
“There are two keys for the front and back doors and two for the garage. The remote garage door openers are on the shelf by the door in the garage.”
“It is a wonderful house,” Betsy said as she picked the keys up. She separated two off and handed them to Kelley. Then she slipped the other three in her purse.
Buck stepped back and looked around.
“It was my mom’s house,” he said. “She passed away about a year ago.”
“I’m sorry,” said Betsy.
Buck shrugged as he said, “She was old and sick. She had been in the nursing home for about a year. No one has lived in this house for about two years. I have been taking care of it. Last summer I had it remodeled, so all the improvements are new. I didn’t have the heart to sell it. I am just glad I got two people in it I can trust.”
His eyes wandered to Kelley as he said, “I hope you two young ladies enjoy living here.”
“Oh, we will,” said Kelley. “Both Betsy and I are from small towns. We like the city, but miss the slower pace of a town like this.”
“It can get pretty hectic here, too,” said Buck. “But I know what you are saying. I lived in Pittsburg for a while. I couldn’t wait to get back here.”
At this, he glanced at his watch.
“I want to get over to the orchard before it closes. I want some fresh apple cider and the wife wants a bushel of apples.”
Betsy’s eyes lit at the mention of an orchard as she queried, “Where is the orchard?”
Buck pointed north.
“It is north of Bremen, on the highway. It is about a ten-minute drive from the interstate. You can’t miss it.”
Kelley looked at Betsy, saying, “I would like a jug of cider before we go back.”
Betsy smiled and said, “Some apples would be nice, too.”
After Buck left, the women went over the house, planning their move. “We can move Halloween weekend,” said Kelley. “My brother Bruce and his girlfriend will help us. He has a couple of buddies that I am sure would help out too,”
“We can have a little party afterwards,” said Betsy. “That restaurant that we ate at last night caters. I saw the sign. We can have them bring some of that fried chicken. We can have some beer cold. There is enough room for everyone to sleep over before going back on Sunday.”
“That sounds like fun,” said Kelley. “Halloween is on Sunday this year. We will find out on our first night alone if this house is haunted.”
With a toss of her head, Betsy snorted, “Hah. I don’t believe in ghosts.”
“Neither do I,” said Kelley, with a laugh. “But you never know about these old houses. I am sure someone has died in here. Maybe they are trapped and can’t get away.”
“Yeah, right.” Betsy glanced at her phone. “Buck said the orchard closes at three. We can just make it before heading back.”
“Then let’s go. We can come back down next Friday night, bring some things down and get the house ready.”
With that, the two locked up, got the garage remotes from the garage and drove off.

Betsy moved about the living room, gathering beer bottles and tossing them in a garbage bag. From the kitchen, she could hear the sound of the water running from the faucet as Kelley cleaned up the dishes.
The move had gone smoothly. Bruce, his girlfriend and his buddies had stayed the night, partying well into it. Bruce was an excellent cook and had whipped up a delicious breakfast, followed by more beer. By mid afternoon, the party had left, taking their trucks and laughter with them.
“Great party,” she called out.
“Yeah, it was a wonderful way to break in our new house.”
Betsy glanced out at the sun, which was lowering on the horizon. “I think I am going to walk over to that little park. Do you want to go along?”
“Yeah, give me a minute. I want to finish up here. We can stop at a burger place and bring some burgers. The cable is working so we can watch a movie before going to bed.”
“That sounds great. I’ll back the car out and get some water bottles.”
“We better pick up some candy, in case we have some trick or treaters.”
“I think the town did that on Friday, Kel. We missed it.”
“We can still get candy. We can treat ourselves.”
Betsy laughed, “I am sure there is plenty of candy left at the store.”
She went outside, feeling satisfied. This was a good move. They would enjoy it here.

Later that night after they finished the burgers and movie Betsy and Kelley readied for bed. Kelley turned out the light and glanced out her bedroom window at the gentle scene that unfolded beneath it. She was happy and relaxed. This was better than seeing cars, people, and streetlights. She lay down and pulled the covers over her. Sleep came quickly, driven by good food and beer.
As the lights went out, and the two young women slept, the house was still. The two young ladies lay asleep in their beds. Outside, a full moon covered the late fall landscape with its silver blanket of light. The last of the katydids chirped in the bushes, and crickets joined them in their noisy symphony.
The spirits of the house gathered and watched the women sleep. A wave of agreement swept amongst the house spirits. They liked these young women. They would weave a protective net around them and protect them from harm.
Outside, the giant oak in the backyard shivered. The spirit that lived within it sensed changes in the autumn wind. It was an ancient spirit that had seen many changes. The spirit knew that not all changes were good.

Available in multiple ebook formats and softbound
Buy Paul Wonning's At:

Picker's Paradise Trader Mall
129 N Broadway Street
Greensburg, Indiana, IN 47420
(812) 663-0021

On the Square in Downtown Greensburg
Wholesale Pricing Available
For more information, contact:
Mossyfeetbooks@gmail.com
Orders over $50.00 Free Shipping
Download the Mossy Feet Books catalog today for great reading.

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© 2018 Paul Wonning

Wednesday, February 14, 2018

Sample Chapter - Cabbage Garden Culture and Uses

Cabbage Garden Culture and Uses
Cabbage Garden Culture and Uses
Cabbage Garden Culture and Uses
Planters usually sow cabbage seed from ten to twelve weeks before the last frost date in the spring. After germination and the emergence of the first true leaves, the seedlings are transplanted to larger containers. Then they are moved to a hot bed or cold frame. Cabbage is frost tolerant and the seedlings may be set out in the garden about four weeks before the last spring frost. The heads develop from between fifty to ninety days or more, depending upon the variety. Gardeners will find three main maturity groups, early (50 - 60 days), mid season (60 - 75 days) and late season (75 days or more). Planting a few of each maturity ensures a longer harvest. Usually the cabbage plants will grow smaller, secondary heads after the main head is harvested. These will be much smaller, but still quite good.
Gardeners Guide to Growing Cabbage in the Vegetable Garden
Gardeners Guide to Growing Cabbage
in the Vegetable Garden
Grow Your Own
Gardeners willing to grow their own seedlings will have a much greater varieties available. Locally grown seedlings are usually best for purchase. Local nurseries will grow the best types for their region.
Fall Crop
It is also possible to grow cabbage as a fall crop. Sow seed in late spring to early summer and plant in the garden in mid to late summer. Pest populations are high during this time. The gardener needs vigilance to prevent cabbageworms from devouring the young seedlings. The gardener must also maintain adequate moisture levels, in the summer heat. This is true especially when the seedlings are small. Most cabbage varieties make good fall crops, as the heads seem to get sweeter when nipped by the first autumn frosts.
Five Categories
There are five main categories of cabbage:
Savoy – Characterized by crimped or curly leaves, mild flavor and tender texture
Spring Greens – Loose-headed, commonly sliced and steamed
Green – Light to dark green, slightly pointed heads. Greens are the most common type grown.
Red – Smooth red leaves, often used for pickling or stewing
White, also called Dutch – Smooth, pale green leaves

Tuesday, February 13, 2018

Sample Chapter - May 1, 1486 - Christopher Columbus' Initial Meeting With Queen Isabella

Colonial American History Stories - 1215 - 1664
Colonial American History Stories - 1215 - 1664
May 1, 1486 - Christopher Columbus' Initial Meeting With Queen Isabella
Months of lobbying the Spanish Court finally paid off for Christopher Columbus. His efforts finally convinced the Queen to meet with him. He wanted her to review his proposal to reach the East by sailing West over the vast Atlantic Ocean.
Christopher Columbus (October 1450/1451 - May 20, 1506)
Many things about the early life of history's most renowned explorer are still a mystery to historians. They have not been able to pin down the exact date of his birth or the location. Most believe he entered the world in the Republic of Genoa in modern Italy. We have anglicized his name to Christopher Columbus. However, in his native Genovese his name was Cristoforo Colombo. The Spanish call him Cristóbal Colón. His father worked as a wool weaver in both Genoa and Savona. He also owned a cheese stand at which young Christopher worked while a boy. Most believe that his mother was Susanna of Fontanarossa (1435-1489). She also bore four other children, Bartolomeo, Giovanni, Giacomo, and a daughter named Bianchinetta. Columbus claimed he first went to sea at the age of ten in one of his letters.
Early Life
By 1473, Columbus had begun his seafaring career. Between the years 1473 and 1477 he apparently traveled to the Aegean island Chios. He also sailed with an armed convoy to England and Ireland. There is also a possibility that he visited the Norse colony on Iceland. In 1479. He married the daughter of a Portuguese Knight of Santiago, Filipa Moniz Perestrelo. She bore Christopher his son, Diego Columbus, in 1479 or 1480. Columbus had one other illegitimate son, Ferdinand Columbus, by Beatriz Enriquez de Arana. The fate of Columbus' wife, Filipa Moniz, remains a mystery. Some accounts say she died in 1485, others say Columbus walked out on her. Regardless, by 1485 she was out of his life when he began his quest to find a sponsor for his proposed explorations.
Self Taught Education
Columbus learned to speak and read three languages, Latin, Portuguese, and Castilian. He also studied astronomy, geography, and history. Somehow, he learned about the trade winds that rode through the equatorial regions. Whether he learned by personal experience or by conversations with sailors, no one really knows.
He also read the works of Claudius Ptolemy. Cardinal Pierre d'Ailly's Im ago Mundi and the travels of Marco Polo also met his eyes. He studied Sir John Mandeville and Pliny's Natural History. Pope Pius II's Historia Rerum Ubique Gestarum rounded out his reading fare. Through these works, he arrived at his theory of reaching the East by sailing west.
It Was All About Trade
Until 1453, the land trade route over the Silk Road to Asia had been reasonably safe. When the Ottoman Turks conquered the last stanchion of the Roman Empire, Constantinople, in 1453 the route became more dangerous. The lucrative trade with China and India cut off, European kings and merchants sought a safer, faster route to the Orient. They desperately wanted the silk, spices and other exotic wares of those lands. Christopher Columbus thought he had the answer.
Competing Theories
Washington Irving's biography of Columbus in 1828 planted the idea that Fifteenth Century scholars thought the Earth was flat. Though many people at the time believed this was so, most scholars believed that the Earth was spherical in shape. The biggest debates came over the size of the Earth. Using geography, astronomer Eratosthenes (276 BC - 194 BC), had calculated the Earth's circumference. Claudius Ptolemy (AD 90 – c.?)168) also calculated the circumference of the Earth during Roman times. An Arab astronomer had also calculated the Earth's circumference. This Arab, Alfraganus (Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kathir al-Farghani) lived during the Ninth Century. He wrote a textbook, A Compendium of the Science of the Stars, around 833. Columbus, and many other scholars, based their belief on the earth's size on the writings of Alfraganus. His calculations led Columbus to believe that the earth was 18,765 miles in circumference at the equator. Eratosthenes' calculations indicated a circumference of 24,854. Both men were close, but the confusion came in because Alfraganus used the Arabic mile in his calculations. This mile is longer than the standard European mile in use at the time. If you apply the Arabic mile to Alfraganus calculations, his numbers match Eratosthenes. Columbus, and many others of that age, did not realize this. This is important because Columbus used the smaller number to prove that a voyage across the Atlantic was possible.
Columbus Travels to Portugal
In 1485, Columbus tried to sell his idea to King John II of Portugal, who was interested. He consulted with his geographers about it. They, believing Ptolemy's numbers, felt that the distance was too far. A Fifteenth Century ship simply could not carry enough supplies to make the voyage. King John II rejected him twice.
Travel to Spain
After the second rejection in 1488, Columbus traveled to Spain to consult with Queen Isabella. He gained his first audience with the Queen on May 1, 1486. After consulting with her science experts, she rejected the proposal for the same reasons of her Portuguese counterpart. She did grant him a living allowance to keep him in Spain and prevent his entering service with any other European monarch. The Muslims still occupied the Iberian Peninsula. The monarchs still had most of their resources devoted to the Reconquista of Al-Andalus. Columbus would have to wait for six long years for this war to end and allow him another chance to present his proposal to the Queen again. It was during this period that he became involved with Beatriz Enriquez de Arana and had his second son, Ferdinand, in August 1488. During Columbus's first voyage in 1492 she cared for both her son and Columbus' other son, Diego.