Sunday, May 31, 2020

Sample Chapter - Short History of Museums - Madame Tussaud's Wax Museum Story

Sample Chapter
Short History of Museums
Madame Tussaud's Wax Museum Story
Visitors to Madame Tussaud's Washington, DC can view lifelike figures of all 45 Presidents of the United States, the First Ladies, cultural icons, historical scenes, celebrities and much more.
Madame Tussaud's has location in many other cities, including:
Amsterdam
Bangkok
Beijing
Berlin
Blackpool
Chongqing
Delhi
Hollywood
Hong Kong
Istanbul
Las Vegas
London
Nashville
New York
Orlando
Prague
San Francisco
Shanghai
Singapore
Sydney
Tokyo
Vienna
Washington D.C.
Wuhan

Madame Tussaud's Washington, DC
1001 F Street, NW
Washington, DC 20004
1 (202) 942-7300
info@madametussaudsdc.com
https://www.madametussauds.com/washington-dc/en/

Madame Tussaud (December 1, 1761 – April 16, 1850) 
Born as Anna Maria Grosholtz, Madame Tussaud was the daughter of Joseph and Anne-Marie Walder Grosholtz and native to Strasbourg, France. Her father died in the Seven Years War two months before her birth. Her mother migrated to Bern, Switzerland where she took a job as housekeeper to a doctor, Philippe Curtius. She would use the name Marie later in life.
Apprentice as a Wax Modeler
In addition to being a doctor, Curtius was a skilled wax modeler. He began using his wax models to portray human anatomy but eventually began producing wax portraits of people. He developed an affection for young Marie, who would call him "uncle," and took her on as an apprentice. He considered her exceptionally skilled in the art. Curtius moved to Paris to create wax portraits for people in 1765. Marie and her mother joined him the next year.
Paris and Versailles
Over the next several years, Marie developed her skills. She created wax models for such famous personalities like  Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Benjamin Franklin and Voltaire. In her work she became intimate with the French royal family, who invited her to live with them at Versailles. Historical lore relates that she lived there for nine years as an art tutor to King Louis XVI’s sister.
French Revolution
The French Revolution erupted in 1789. Marie moved back to Paris just before mobs arrested the king and queen of France on August 10, 1792. They would execute the king by guillotining him on January 21, 1793. The queen would suffer the same fate nine months later. Because of her relationship with the royal family Marie was suspected of being a royal sympathizer. She and her mother were imprisoned and Marie had her head shaved in preparation for a date with the guillotine. A family friend of Curtius helped secure her release, however the French authorities compelled Marie to create wax death masks for guillotine victims to prove her loyalty.
Move to London
Curtius passed away in 1794 and bequeathed his collection of wax heads to Marie, who married Fran├žois Tussaud a few months later. The couple would have three children. In 1802 she traveled to London with her sons to tour with her wax figures. She left her husband behind in France. Her exhibits became quite popular during a tour of the British Isles.  When Napoleon rose to power, the wars between England and France prevented her return to France, so she established a home base on Baker Street in London and continued touring with her collection. In 1833 she established a permanent exhibition on Baker Street. She created a separate chamber for her collection of artifacts from the French Revolution. Punch Magazine coined the term Chamber Of Horrors for this collection. Madame Tussaud, as she came to be known, died on April 16, 1850. Some of her wax figures still exist.
Madame Tussaud’s gallery has grown to become one of London’s top attractions as well as its many branches across the world.
© 2020 Paul Wonning

Thursday, May 28, 2020

Turkey Run Indiana State Park

Turkey Run Indiana State Park
Hikers will love the rugged, magnificent trails at Turkey Run State Park in Parke County, Indiana. Stay at Turkey Run Inn and dine in the restaurant or camp in the beautiful campground. Canoeists can float down Sugar Creek, which traverses two State Parks. Considered the Covered Bridge Capitol of Indiana, Parke County maintains several lovely covered bridge auto tours which allow visitors to drive through the countryside and see the 31 surviving covered bridges in the county.
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McCormick's Creek State Park
Turkey Run Indiana State Park
Clifty Falls State Park
Brown County State Park


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Saturday, May 23, 2020

Short History of Early Colonial Leaders


Description:
The Short History of Early Colonial Leaders relates the stories of the founders of the original 13 colonies.
Scheduled for Publication sometime in 2020

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Sample Chapter - Short History of Early Colonial Leaders - Founder of Rhode Island Roger Williams


Sample Chapter 
Short History of Early Colonial Leaders
Founder of Rhode Island Roger Williams

Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations
Banished from Massachusetts over religious differences with the Puritan church leaders, Roger Williams established Providence Plantations southwest of Plymouth on the northern end of  Narragansett Bay.

Roger Williams (c. 1631 -  Sometime between January 27 and March 15 1683) 
Sometime in late winter 1604 Alice Pemberton Williams presented her husband, James Williams, with a son, Roger. The date, between January and March, no one will ever know because the birth records burned in a fire that destroyed in 1666 during the Great Fire of London. His father was a merchant tailor in Smithfield, England.
Influence of Sir Edward Coke
An influential lawyer, judge and legislator in England, Sir Edward Coke took an important role in the life of Roger Williams. Many historians consider Coke the most important jurist during his lifetime. His many legal reforms and ideas played an important role in the American revolution and in the drafting of the third and fourth amendments to the Constitution of the United States. Coke oversaw much of Roger Williams education and probably influenced much of his thinking.
Education
Coke oversaw Roger's education at Charterhouse and also at Pembroke College, Cambridge where he received a BA in 1627. Gifted with a skill for learning languages he spoke Latin, Hebrew, Greek, Dutch, and French. He focused on theology and holy orders in the Church of England. However, while studying at Cambridge he became a Puritan. This disqualified him to take a position with the Anglican Church. After graduation a Puritan gentleman and member of Parliament, Sir William Masham, hired him as his chaplain. Williams married Mary Barnard (1609–76) on December 15, 1629.
Evolution of Theology
During this time William's religious views evolved. He believed that the Church of England was corrupt and false. He believed in the freedom of religion and that the church must separate itself from government to cleanse itself. His views were unpopular in England and authorities threatened to arrest him. Authorities had punished many religious dissenters by whipping or burning at the stake. With the authorities threatening arrest, Williams fled England and immigrated to Boston. He had learned of the first Puritan emigration to the New World in 1630, but did not join it at that time. He and his wife Mary did leave England on the ship, Lyon, in early December, 1630.
Roger and his wife Mary arrived in Boston on February 5, 1631.
Annoying the Puritan Leadership
After his arrival in Boston, he spent the next four years annoying Massachusetts colonial leaders with his views.  By October 1763, Massachusetts leaders had had enough and arrested him.
William's Views
Two of his beliefs got him into the most trouble, and both threatened the power structure of those in charge. First, he believed that religious dissent caused most wars. Therefore, he advocated complete tolerance of religion and that taxes should not be used to support the church. Second, he believed that the English should purchase the land they wanted from the natives. He preached that most of the colonies were there illegitimately and that they should buy the land from the tribes that had lived there.
Ministry in Salem and Plymouth
At first, the colonists in Boston welcomed him, but soon his views got him into trouble. He moved to Plymouth, which was more tolerant of his teachings. In 1633, a minister in Salem, the Reverend Samuel Skelton, invited him to his church as an unofficial assistant. Skelton passed away and Williams took over as the minister of the church. His return to Salem did not please the Puritan leaders and they sought to arrest him. They did arrest him in 1633 and placed him on trial. The matter was resolved and Williams released. However, by 1635 they ordered his appearance before the Court in both March and July. They ordered him removed from his position in the church; an order not complied with by the church. Finally, in October 1635 the court tried and convicted him of sedition and heresy. The court banned him from Massachusetts. Williams was ill at this time and officials allowed him to stay at his home until his health improved as long as he ceased preaching. By now most of Williams, supporters had faded away, but a few remained. Williams did not cease preaching, so in January the
Slipping Away in a Blizzard
Williams did not cease preaching, so in January the Sheriff went to his home to arrest him. Williams had gotten away during a blizzard three days earlier. He traveled fifty-five miles through the snow to find refuge with the Wampanoag tribe. He stayed with them for three months, until spring.
Role in the Pequot War
Williams had formed close ties with the Narragansett tribe. He had purchased land from them in 1636 to found his colony, which he called Providence Plantations. When the Pequot War broke out in 1637, Massachusetts Bay officials requested aid from Williams. Williams used his influence to persuade the Narragansett tribe to refrain from siding with the Pequot. The Narragansett tribe became the largest and most influential tribe in the region after the annihilation of the Pequot tribe.
Canochet Canonicus (1539 - June 4, 1647)
The son of Wessonsuoum Narragansett and Keshechoo Narragansetts Canochet was native to the Cape Cod area of current Massachusetts. Canonicus feared the arrival of the Pilgrims when they arrived in Plymouth during the fall of 1620. He sent a challenge to the Pilgrims in the form of a  bundle of arrows bound together with a snake skin. Pilgrim leader William Bradford returned after filling the wrap with gunpowder and lead shot. The explosive powder, which the natives had no exposure to, caused fear among the them. In response, Canochet signed a treaty of alliance with the English that he would honor for the rest of his life. After Boston's leaders expelled Williams and his wife, Canochet gave them the land they needed to establish a colony. His influence lasted far beyond his death, as the Narragansett remained largely at peace with the English until the 1675 King Philip's War.
Providence Plantations
Williams called his new colony Providence Plantations, because he believed it was God's providence that sent him to the area.
Rhode Island
A year after Williams founded Providence Plantation, William Coddington, John Clarke, and Anne and William Hutchinson founded a colony they called Pocasset on an island they acquired from the natives. They changed the island's name from Rhode Island to Aquidneck Island, .

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Sample Chapter - Short History of Political Parties - Nullification Crises


Sample Chapter 
Nullification Crises


The idea of states resisting Federal laws by nullifying them had simmered since 1798 when Kentucky protested Congress enactment of the Alien and Sedition Acts. The subject flared up briefly again in 1828 with the passage of the Tariff of 1828, but the issue once again faded away. John C. Calhoun wrote, and published anonymously, a pamphlet entitled “Exposition and Protest,” during the 1828 election while he was the vice presidential nominee with Andrew Jackson. Calhoun was a staunch backer of the nullification theory while Jackson was opposed. The issue would cause a serious political divide between the two men in years to come.
John C. Calhoun's “Exposition and Protest”
Calhoun used the pamphlet to explain his theories of nullification and present his arguments against the Tariff of 1828. He argued that since the federal government derived its power with the consent of the states, then states had the right to nullify any law Congress passed that the state deemed unconstitutional. He felt that the Tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional because it was used to protect certain industries in the United States, not to generate revenue. His opinion was that tariffs were legal as a revenue generator, however using them to protect one product while leaving others unprotected was unconstitutional. After publication, he presented it to the South Carolina legislature. Though the legislature had 5000 copies of the pamphlet printed and distributed, it took no legislative action on the ideas it expressed at the time. Even though he did not reveal that he had authored it, word did leak out.
Effects of the Tariff of 1828 on the South
The Tariff of 1828, also called the Tariff of Abominations, created an economic disaster for the southern states. The tariff imposed high duties on imported manufactured goods, which helped protect manufacturers in the north from foreign competition. For the southern states it imposed higher prices on the goods they needed. Since they sold the bulk of their cotton to foreign markets they found less demand for their product. The higher tariff had resulted in less need for Southern cotton for foreign mills because of the drop in their sales in the United States due to the tariff. In addition to this, some nations instituted a boycott of United States cotton in retaliation for the high tariffs. The economic decline led many southern states, especially South Carolina, to revisit the Nullification Theory after Calhoun, their chief ally, gained the vice presidency in 1832.
Tariff of 1832
Congress passed a new tariff law in 1832, attempting to diffuse the smoldering revolt of the southern states, especially hardest hit South Carolina. President Andrew Jackson signed the act into law on July 13, 1832. The Tariff of 1832 did not repeal the previous law, which the southern states found so odious. It merely reduced the duties. The new tariff did nothing to alleviate the crises.
South Carolina's Ordinance of Nullification
Many in South Carolina were still dissatisfied with the tariff. Resistance to it built in the state, prompting the South Carolina Assembly to pass an Ordinance of Nullification on November 24, 1832. In essence, the bill declared the tariff unconstitutional and that the legislature deemed it null and void. With this legislation, South Carolina threatened to secede from the Union over the tariff.

Jackson's Proclamation to the People of South Carolina
President Andrew Jackson responded to South Carolina's Ordinance of Nullification by issuing a proclamation on December 10, 1832 that denied that states had a right to nullify any law passed by Congress. In his Proclamation, he warned, "Should the nullifiers succeed in their views of separation, and the Union be in consequence dissolved."
Readers interested in reading the full transcript will find it at this link:

Force Bill
The United States Congress responded to South Carolina's affront to its authority by passing the Force Bill on March 2, 1833. The Force Bill included eight sections, five of which were the most important.
Section 1 authorized the President to use whatever force was necessary to secure ports and harbors and protect United States customs agents. It also provided authorization for the President to detain vessels and cargoes in order to enforce the collection of tariffs. Any attempt to obstruct the collection of tariffs was illegal and the President could use whatever force was necessary to collect the revenue.
Section 2 expanded federal court jurisdiction to cases involving the collection of import duties.
Section 3 allowed the President to use military force to deal with states, or regions within states, that resisted federal law or the federal courts.
Section 6 dealt with some state's resistance to imprison persons convicted of federal charges. It authorized United States Federal Marshals to arrest and confine these persons.
Section 8 was a sunset clause that ended the Force Bill at the end of the next session of Congress.
Interested readers can find the full legislation at this link:

Sunday, May 10, 2020

Sample Chapter - Short History of Post Office - Mid-1800's Mail Delivery Systems

Sample Chapter
Short History of Post Office
Mid-1800's Mail Delivery Systems
By 1845 many different types of mail systems had evolved, including:
Stage Coaches
Horse and Sulky
Railroad
Post Office
Saltwater Mail System
Ship Letters
Packet boat
Steamboat Companies
Semi-Formal
Informal
Stage Coach Companies
Brutal Travel
The stage coach originated in England in the 13th Century. Stage coach travel was dusty, bumpy and brutal. Most stage coaches seated about nine people on three seats inside the coach. The springless coaches provided for a rough ride over the dirt roads of the time. The stage coach acquired its name because travelers completed their journey in "stages." Typically, teams of two to six horses pulled the coaches, which could weigh in at about 2.000 pounds. Baggage and mail was stowed in leather compartments called boots at the front and rear of the compartment. More luggage and mail could be placed on top of the coach behind the driver. Leather curtains provided some protection against dust while the leather seats provided little leg room. There was no back support, so passengers riding in the middle of the seat had to cling to a leather strap suspended from the ceiling of the coach.
Periodic Stops
Most stage coach lines had several stops along the way. Minor stops, called "swing" stops, allowed a stop of about ten minutes. These were about twelve miles apart. The stage driver had a small brass horn he tooted before arriving at the stop to alert the attendant the stage was coming. Once at these stops, the horse team would be changed and the passengers allowed out for a few minutes of welcome relief. About every fifty or sixty miles the stage coach stopped at a "home" station. These stations were bigger and usually had a cabin or house for the passengers to catch a few hours sleep and a meal before proceeding on. Sometimes there was a blacksmith on the site. A Butterfield stagecoach could cover about 110 miles per day traveling at about 5 miles per hour.
Influential Lobby
The stage coach lobby evolved into a powerful lobby in Washington D. C. Generally, the Post Office awarded contracts for mail delivery to stage coach companies for four years. In 1838 stage coaches carried mail 29,593,192 total miles for a total cost to the Post Office of $1.889,792. This amounted to about $.06 per mile. Although the bids were supposed to be competitive, allegations existed about rigging in the awarding of these contracts, which could be quite lucrative. Many government officials regarded postal contracts as a way to unofficially subsidize stage coach lines.
Sulky Transportation of Mail
A sulky is a two wheeled cart pulled by one horse and one seat for the driver. Much of the mail during this era was carried on horseback or by sulky. In 1838 sulky mail routes covered 11,575,918 miles at a cost of $831,038. This works out to about $.07 per mile.
Railway Companies
Primitive railway systems began emerging in the United States around 1830. The first public railway, the B & O commenced operations on May 24, 1830 with the opening of 24 miles of track over which horses pulled wagons mounted on tracks. The legendary race between the steam engine Tom Thumb on August 28, 1830 began the move to steam power even though the horse defeated the locomotive in the race. Post Office officials began utilizing the new technology on November 30, 1832 when they awarded a contract to a stage coach line that operated between Philadelphia to Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The post office granted the company a $400 per year allowance to carry the mail for a short distance by rail. This practice increased over time. By 1838 the combined mileage for mail carried by rail and steamship totaled 2,413,092 miles at a cost of $410,488. This worked out to about $.17 per mile, however rail was much faster.
1838 - Railroads Designated Post Routes By Congress
The first recorded use of railroads for mail delivery was in Great Britain in 1830. Specially adapted railway carriages were used to carry mail kon the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. Historical lore suggests that the South Carolina Rail Road carried the first bags of mail in 1831. Stage coach contractors Samuel Slaymaker and Jesse Tomlinson received the first recorded grant to use the railroad to carry mail regularly in the United States in 1832 from Philadelphia to Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Railroads saw increased use as mail carriers between 1832 and 1838. The United States Congress passed a law that designated all railroads as post roads on July 7, 1838. The law limited post riders and horse drawn vehicles to carrying mail to post offices that were not on a rail route.
Saltwater Mail System 
Crews on board the sailing ships that plied the oceans would go weeks, months, or even years away from homes and sweethearts. A letter from home was a tremendous morale booster. Sailors could spend many hours while at sea composing letters to send back home. Sailors, and their loved ones back home, kept in touch using the Saltwater Mailing System that had evolved over the years.
The System
The Saltwater Mail System was simple in concept and horrendously unreliable. A ship leaving port would take mail bags on board with their cargo. If, by chance, they met another ship at sea they would open the mail bag and see if there were any letters addressed to any of the crewmen on the other ship. The letters generally bore vague addresses like, "William Smith, Pacific Ocean." If by chance they found one or two letters belonging to crewmen, they would hand them over. They would then take any letters the crew, or officers, had written and add them to the mail bag. When they reached port, they would deposit the mail at that port and take on another bag when they departed. The "post offices," were frequently taverns near the waterfront that ship's captains would use as a sort of makeshift headquarters when they were in port. Needless to say, this system resulted in many letters taking months or years to reach the recipient. If they even arrived at all.
The Letters
Since postage was calculated by the number of pages, numerous systems evolved to put as much information as they could on one sheet. Many used a system called "cross writing," to double the amount of words they could put in a letter. Basically, they would write the letter from top to bottom, then turn the page 1/4 turn and continue writing, with these lines intersecting those written earlier.
Ship Letters
The salt water mail system used by sailors was part of a larger, loose knit system of mail often referred to as the ship letter system. Ship captains, both salt water and fresh water, frequently used a public house, or tavern, as an office. Tavern owners encouraged this practice, as a boat captain hanging out in their tavern generally led to and increase in traffic as people looked to boat captains as a source of news and mail. A visit to a tavern when a captain was in attendance would sometimes yield a letter dispatched from a faraway relative, lover or acquaintance. If you received a letter from a captain, it was common practice to pay the captain a fee for the service. Typically, the sender gave the captain 2 cents and the recipient 6 cents for the service. If you had a letter to mail, you would give it to the captain, he would add it to the growing accumulation of letters in his mail bag. Especially in the colonies, the ship letter system was slow and often unreliable. Many times letter writers would make several copies of an important letters and send them on different ships to increase the odds at least one would reach the recipient. Wars between nations could further complicate mail delivery. Ships sunk during naval actions would, of course, never deliver any mail on board. Others were captured and the letters became part of the prize seized by the captors. Piracy could also cause many letters to go undelivered. Ships sunk due to storms were another impediment to mail delivery in this system. A recent effort by the British National Archives to digitize many of the 160,000 letters seized as prize booty during Britain's wars in the 17th and 18th centuries will cause many of these letters to be digitized. They should provide a valuable insight into life during that time. Many of these letters are still sealed with wax.
Packet boat
In the early days of maritime history ships often sat in port until they had enough cargo and passengers to depart. This could be days, weeks or even months. In 1660 an innovation appeared as regularly scheduled ship departure began carrying mail between Great Britain and Holland. The routes later expanded to include France and Spain. These ships became known as packet ships, because their function in the beginning was to carry packets of mail between ports. At this time, privateers and pirates preyed upon shipping so most of these ships were armed and prepared to defend themselves against attack. Since this was a common danger, the companies offered a standard table of compensation for sailors that lost limbs during an attack. Packet ships were mainly small vessels that plied the oceans, rivers and canals of Europe and the United States. They maintained a regular schedule and eventually evolved into ships capable of carrying freight and passengers as well as mail. The packet trade, as it came to be called, became quite popular, and profitable for ships owners and those that used the service. Packet boats carried multitudes of immigrants to the United States on packet boats. Packet boats on the Erie Canal and others carried immigrants into the interior of the growing nation. By the early part of the Nineteenth Century steamship companies began supplanting packet boats as mail and passenger carriers.
Steamboat Mail Delivery
Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston teamed up to build the first steam powered boat in 1807, forever changing water transportation and the carriage of mail.
Robert Fulton (November 14, 1765 – February 24, 1815)
The son of son of Irish immigrants Robert Fulton and Mary Smith, Fulton received his education at a Quaker school about time he turned eight. His father died in 1774. He became an apprentice at a Philadelphia jewelry shop. While there he developed a talent for painting miniature portraits on lockets and rings. His talent for painting took him to London to seek his fortune in painting. His talent not sufficient for London tastes, he became acquainted with James Watt's invention, the steam engine. He met Robert R. Livingston and the two teamed up to build the first steamboat in 1807, based on designs Fulton drew. This steamboat, the Clermont, made its first voyage on August 17, 1807. Fulton was also a huge advocate of building the Erie Canal. Fulton died of tuberculosis in 1815.
Riverboats
Fulton’s first riverboats were designed for the deeper eastern American waterways  and didn’t fare so well in the shallower western rivers. He built a boat called the New Orleans to run down the Ohio River from Pittsburgh to New Orleans. The New Orleans departed Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in September, 1811. It traveled down the Ohio to Louisville, Kentucky, where it had to wait for the river to rise before it could navigate the Falls of the Ohio region. When the water finally rose, the boat had to navigate in water only five inches deeper the boat drew. Coincidentally, the catastrophic New Madrid earthquake struck as the boat slipped into a pool of water just below the Falls. The shock waves of the quake threw water out of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers, felled trees into the rivers, and just created a general mess.  After many delays, the boat finally did reach New Orleans, but it never made the trip again. Rivers like the Ohio, Missouri, and Red Rivers needed boats with shallower drafts. These boats were eventually built, and river traffic at ports along these rivers blossomed.
Ocean Going Paddlewheelers
Paddle wheelers designed to cross the ocean were developed a little later. The Savannah, a converted coastal packet became the first paddle wheeler to cross the Atlantic. It departed Savannah Georgia on May 24, 1819 and arrived in Liverpool, England on the twentieth of June, 1819. Other ships made the trans-Atlantic crossing at irregular times until the British Cunard Line began a regular schedule in 1840. It was 1847 before American ships - the  Herman and Washington began service between America and Europe. The ocean going ships of this era were wooden paddle wheelers also equipped with masts to use to take advantage of favorable winds when they occurred. Freshwater paddle-wheelers were limited to the larger rivers and lakes. Canals were narrower than rivers and travel was discouraged because the turbulence induced by the paddles caused bank erosion.
Fulton died of tuberculosis in 1815.
Early Mail Carriage
Fulton's steamboats carried mail on some of their first voyages, beginning in 1807. Unofficial carriage of mail, without a contract with the Post Office, continued until 1823, when the United States Congress declared the nation's waterways as post roads, thus outlawing private carriage of mail. Typically, the unofficial carriage of mail used the ship letter system, however the volume of mail carried using this system created a drop in Post Office volume in many port towns by 1813. The Congress responded by passing a law that authorized local post masters to sign contracts with steamship companies to carry mail on February 27, 1815.
First Mail Contracts
The law that authorized post masters to sign contracts with steam ship companies also required all steam boat captains to deliver any mail they carried to the post office in any port at which they docked. This law compelled steamship companies to sign contracts with local post office officials, the first of which were signed later that same year. By the 1830 steam boats carried mail on the Ohio River, along the East Coast, the Hudson River, Erie Canal and the Mississippi River. By 1855 steamships carried mail a total of 14,619 miles. Two years before California achieved statehood, the Post Office authorized the establishment of post offices in that faraway territory in 1848. Since there was as yet no rail service between California and the eastern United States, steamship companies began forming that would provide a vital mail link between the two widely separated regions.
U.S. Mail Steamship Company
Established in 1848, the U.S. Mail Steamship Company transported mail from New York to New Orleans Havana and to the Isthmus of Panama. Mail arriving at the Isthmus was transported overland to a port on the Pacific Ocean and loaded on to a steam ship bound for California or Oregon. The Pacific Mail Steamship Company formed to transport mail from the west coast of Panama to the western United States coast. The U.S. Mail Steamship Company ceased operations in 1859.
Pacific Mail Steamship Company
A consortium of New York businessmen established the Pacific Mail Steamship Company on April 18, 1848, to carry mail from the western coast of Panama to points in California, Oregon and other points along the Pacific Coast. Initially, the steamship line transported mail and farm produce produced in California, however James W. Marshall's discover of gold at Sutter's Mill in California set off the California Gold Rush that same year. The steamship line found itself in the right place at the right time as gold fever set in and the rush of forty-niners streamed west. The company expanded its routes in later years, carrying passengers, mail and freight to Oregon, Washington and Alaska. The company closed in 1949.
Informal
Many farmers in the Midwest and other regions did not have a much cash on hand and could not afford to send letters via the Post Office. If they wanted to communicate with a family member or friend located in a distant town or city, they would write the letter and hold it until a local acquaintance was planning to travel to that place. They would entrust the letter to that person, who would deliver it free.
Semi-Formal 
Merchants located in large cities like Philadelphia, New York and Boston developed a sort of informal mailing system. Any merchant that had a need to travel from one large city to another would advertise the fact ahead of time. Any businessman that needed to send a letter to that city would contact him and give him the letter to deliver. This service was performed free, as all businessmen had need of the service. Many could achieve almost daily mail service between the large cities using this method.

Sunday, May 3, 2020

McCormick's Creek Deluxe Gift Box


McCormick's Creek Deluxe Gift Box
Includes Softbound Book
McCormick's Creek Indiana State Park
6 - Note Cards
4  -Post Cards
1 - Photo/Video CD
CD includes these photo slideshows:
Canyon Inn
Nature Center
Park Structures
Picnic Shelters
McCormick's Creek Trail 3
McCormick's Creek Trail 4
McCormick's Creek Trail 5
McCormicks - Quarry Loop - Trail 7 Wabash River
McCormicks Falls
Peeden Site
Tivoli Theatre - Spencer
The CD also contains an Epub and PDF ebook version of the book.
$16.99
$3.00 Shipping
Available Only from the Author

McCormick's Creek CD Slideshow

McCormick's Creek CD Slideshow
Slideshow Featuring
McCormicks Creek State Park and Surrounding Area
The CD includes these photo slideshows:
Canyon Inn
Nature Center
Park Structures
Picnic Shelters
McCormick's Creek Trail 3
McCormick's Creek Trail 4
McCormick's Creek Trail 5
McCormicks - Quarry Loop - Trail 7 Wabash River
McCormicks Falls
Peeden Site
Tivoli Theatre - Spencer
The CD will also have a PDF and an EPUB version of the book included
Available only directly from the author
$9.99
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Sample Chapter - The Story of Indiana's Counties - Martin County


Sample Chapter 
The Story of Indiana's Counties 
Martin County

Martin County
County Facts
County Seat - Shoals
Area - 340.41 sq miles
Population - 10,334 (2010)
Founded - January 17, 1820
Named for- John T. Martin
County Government
Martin County Courthouse
111 S. Main Street
Shoals, IN 47581     


Tourism Information
Martin County Chamber of Commerce
210 N. Line St.
Mailing Address:
P.O. Box 257
Loogootee, IN 47553
(812) 295-4093
Visit Martin County
812-295-4093

Thumbnail History 
Using portions of Daviess and Dubois Counties, the Indiana Assembly created Martin County by statute on January 17, 1820. The county organized on February 1, 1820. Hindustan became the first county seat. Martin County derives its name from John T. Martin. Hindustan was the largest town in the county at the time. The stagecoach line that went from New Albany to Vincennes passed through the town. From Hindustan, the county seat moved first to Mount Pleasant, then to Trinity Springs and then to current county seat, Shoals. Local legend says Martin County has changed the location of its county seat eight times, a record for the State of Indiana.
Martin County Seats
Hindustan                             1820 – 1828
Mount Pleasant                    1828 – 1844
Trinity Springs                      1844
Shoals                                   ?
Memphis                              1844
Harrisonville                         1844 – 1845
Hillsborough ( Dover Hill )   1845 – 1869
Shoals                                   1869 – present

First County Seat - Hindustan
The county signed the contract for the first county courthouse in Hindustan on June 5, 1820. The population of Hindustan in 1820 was around 500 people. It was a thriving town with a gristmill, sawmill, several stores. The New Albany-Vincennes stage coach line passed through the town, which was the first stage coach line established in Indiana. Tragedy struck the town in the autumn of 1820. Historians are unsure of the disease, but feel it was malaria, cholera or the "milk sickness." By the sheriff’s census report indicated that the population had dropped to 269 people. The town just faded away, the court house was never finished and in 1828 the legislature moved the county seat to Mount Pleasant.
John T. Martin (1770 - c.1822)
Martin commanded a company of Clark County Volunteers serving under General William Henry Harrison. His company served bravely at the Battle of Frenchtown (Battle of Raisin River) in the War of 1812. Captured by the British during the battle, Martin later received a promotion as lieutenant colonel in the 17th Kentucky Regiment.